Tina L. Hanlon
NOTES: All resources that deal with folktales, folklore adaptations, and storytelling are listed in AppLit's Background Resources on Appalachian Folktales and Storytelling. Return to Bibliography Index or Author Index for AppLit bibliographies on individual authors. Other Internet links on specific authors can be found on Author Links pages. Most authors have their own web sites now with background on their lives and work. See also Lesson Plans and Other Resources for Teachers on AppLit's Links page.
Some of the materials on this and other AppLit pages are related to books for young adults and adults, suitable for high school and college teaching.
Reviews, Articles, and Study Guides on Individual Works are in a separate section below. Most authors now have their own web sites and often reprint review excerpts and resources for teachers there.
Alexander, Lynn Griggs. "Appalachian Characteristics Portrayed in Children's Literature Set in Appalachia." Ed.D. diss. University of Tennessee, 1987. 137 pp. DAI 49:781A. "Applying the content analysis methods of Daniel Katz, Bruce Ergood, Kenneth Braley, and herself to a sample of sixteen books written for primary-school readers, Alexander derives a 'basically positive' composite of Appalachian characters who are 'industrious, loyal to family ties, [in] harmony with nature, and individualistic.' She finds that the main character in these books, presumably male, is 'likely to live on a farm, to have a limited income, to wear overalls, to work very hard, to live in a log cabin, to be very independent, and to love his family.' Although she commends individual authors on their realization of characters, she points out the apparently widespread stereotyping of the region and its people" (summary from Children's Literature 1990).
American Indians in Children's Literature: Critical discussion of American Indians in Children's Books, the School Curriculum, Popular Culture, and Society-at-large. Ed. Debbie Reese, a member of Nambe Pueblo, in northern New Mexico and a former school teacher, now teaching in American Indian Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Blog with reviews of many books, including some with Cherokee subject, and links to other resources on reading and teaching with books on Native Americans, as well as Reese's list of Recommended Children's/YA/Reference/Resource Books.
Antonucci, Ron. "Rylant on Writing: A Talk with 1993 Newbery Medalist Cynthia Rylant. (Interview)." School Library Journal, vol. 39 (May 1993): pp. 26ff. "Brief Summary: Children's writer Cynthia Rylant believes that publishers and critics of children's books are much more fair than their counterparts in the adult fiction business. Rylant discusses her major influences, her approach to writing, and other topics."
"Appalachian Literature: The Adult and the Child Course Collection." June 4-24, 1992. Archives of Appalachia Box 70295. East Tennessee State University. Johnson City, TN. 14 audio cassettes. Lectures by Roberta Herrin and Robert J. Higgs of the English Department, and guest speakers. "The course focused on the concept of child as seen through Appalachian literature for adults and children."
Appalachian Storytelling Event. Appalachian Studies Program. Virginia Tech, 2013. Organized by Robin Kaufman and Anita Puckett. On June 24, 2013, children made quilt squares and recorded their own audio stories or responses to Jack Tales after seeing Rex Stephenson and Emily Blankenship-Tucker tell stories (photos of storytellers at this link). Some of the children added another animal into "Jack and the Robbers," such as an owl that is stuck in its nest and then after Jack helps it out, the owl helps Jack scare the robbers. One child imagined Jack living in the robber's house and another mansion until he was 111 years old! This site includes review of the day's activities with tales and quilts, reading list, and links.
Appalachian Studies Association. Resource Directory for Teaching Appalachian Topics in K-12. With Introduction by Phillip J. Obermiller. Course syllabi and an extensive bibliography on Appalachian Studies are also available in the Resources section of the ASA web site.
Appalachian Studies Timeline. Appalachian Studies Association. Begins in 1900 with events and context. Includes some literary and storytelling landmarks.
Arquilevich, Gabriel, Cathy Gilbert, and Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. A Guide for Using Shiloh in the Classroom: Based on the Novel Written by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources, 2007.
Asbury, Jo Ann. "The Changing Image of Appalachian Children's Literature." Paper presented at the Annual Appalachian Studies Conference. Morgantown, WV. March 17-19, 1995. ERIC Document Number ED 385413. 12 pp.
Baber, Bob Henry. If I Fell in Love with a Watermelon: Poems and Stories by Children from West Whitesburg Elementary. Whitesburg, KY: Letcher County Arts Council, 1989.
Ballard, Sandra L., and Patricia L. Hudson, eds. Listen Here: Women Writing in Appalachia. Lexington: Univ. Press of KY, 2003. The first comprehensive Appalachian anthology of writing by women. Contains selections of poetry and prose by 105 writers, including Marilou Awiakta, Jo Carson, Rebecca Caudill, Nikki Giovanni, Virginia Hamilton (excerpt from M. C. Higgins, the Great), Gloria Houston (from My Great Aunt Arizona), Mother Jones, May Justus ("Weather Rhymes"), George Ella Lyon, MariJo Moore ("Story is a Woman" is a poem in the shape of a woman), Cynthia Rylant (from Missing May), Anne Shelby ("Spellcheck" is a poem on how the spellcheck tries to change dialect words to other words). Short biography and recommended sources are given for each author. Includes a chronology of works (1826-2003) and a bibliography of other works by women writing in Appalachian in all genres. Table of Contents by author and review excerpts at UP of KY web site. See also Thematic Table of Contents for Listen Here in AppLit.
Bassman, Elyse. "Not the Scary Kind Ghost: Life as an Invisible Author." New Moon 13.3 (Jan-Feb 2006): 18(2). General OneFile. Gale. Interview with photograph of Virginia author Candice Ransom.
Bennett, C. I. Comprehensive Multicultural Education: Theory and Practice. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. According to Owens, (in "Country Roads," see below), Bennett discusses Appalachia in a study on how to meet the needs of multicultural children, using examples of children who had difficulty in school when taught outside their ethnic group or geographic home. Includes discussion of dialect differences and a lesson plan "The Many Faces (and Shoes) of Cinderella," by Patricia A. O'Connor, that gives Ashpet as one example.
Bennett, George E. Appalachian Books and Media for Public and College Libraries. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Library, 1975.
Berrier, Ralph, Jr. "Roanoke Valley Reads Author Encourages Youths to Read, Write." The Roanoke Times 17 Nov. 2013: Virginia 1, 10. Article with three color photos on Ruth White's talk at the Taubman Museum of Art in Roanoke, VA, on Nov. 16. "Her Saturday talk ... was the final event of this year's Roanoke Valley Reads series" (1). "White, a native of Grundy in Buchanan County who lives in Pennsylvania, explained that most of her books were inspired by her childhood in the mountains. She lived in the Jewell Valley coal camp until she was 6 years old. Her father was shot to death, and she and her siblings were raised by their mother. Those traumatic experiences have informed her fiction" (10). White's Belle Prater's Boy was one of the Roanoke Valley Reads 2013 youth books, along with Jack Outwits the Giants by Paul Brett Johnson. Wish You Well by David Baldacci, the featured book for adults, is also about the lives of a boy and girl in southwestern VA. In this article's photos, White talks with Henry Baldwin, 10; signs books for Tina Hanlon and others; and holds up a copy of Belle Prater's Boy during her talk.
Biggers, Jeff. The United States of Appalachia. Shoemaker & Hoard, 2006. This groundbreaking book argues that Appalachia has been in the vanguard of many developments in American history, even though it has been severely misrepresented in mass media. The chapter "We Are All Appalachians" includes an overview of literary history, including discussion of Appalachia's influence on writers whose best-known works are not usually associated with the region, such as Pearl Buck and Frances Hodgson Burnett. May Justus is discussed on p. 188. Interviews and excerpts available through Biggers web site. "Moving Mountains to Mine Coal," Biggers' radio commentary on NPR's Marketplace on Aug. 28, 2007, is available at this link.
Book Links. May 1991. Special issue on Appalachian children's books with excellent bibliography.
Brosi, George. "Children's Picture Books of the Southern Mountains." Appalachian Mountain Books, vol. 6.5 (May 1993).
Brosi, George. "Featured Artist: Paul Brett Johnson." Appalachian Heritage 39 (Summer 2011): p. 122. A tribute to Johnson after his death in 2011.
Brosi, George. A Special Issue on Jesse Stuart. Appalachian Mountain Books, v. 2, no. 6. Berea, KY: Appalachian Mountain Books, 1986.
Brown, Jo B. Appalachian Studies Bibliography. Morgantown: West Virginia University Libraries, 1995. Bibliography for 1994-2004 available online.
Burns, Paul C. "Billy Curtis ClarkAppalachia's Young Novelist." Elementary English, vol. 46 (October 1969): 722-30. Includes a biographical sketch, general assessment of Clark's writings, and separate brief reviews of eight of his books (note by Linnea Hendrickson).
Burriss, Theresa L, and Patricia M. Gantt, eds. Appalachia in the Classroom: Teaching the Region. Series in Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Appalachia. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2013. Most essays are about teaching literature. Includes "'Way back yonder, but not so far away': Teaching Appalachian Folktales" by Tina L. Hanlon, pp. 95-108.
Carney, Ginny. Cherokee/Appalachian Literature and Other Resource Materials. Berea, KY: Berea College, Appalachian Studies Summer Institute, 1994.
Caudill, Rebecca. The High Cost of Writing. Cumberland, KY: Southeast Community College, Univ. of Kentucky, 1965. 22 pp.
Caudill, Rebecca. The World of Rebecca Caudill. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
Caudill, Rebecca. Rebecca Caudill Collection. Compilers Anne Campbell, Judy Martin and Daveena Sexton. Lexington: Univ. of Kentucky Libraries, 1985. "The collection consists primarily of materials related to Ms. Caudill's work as a writer. Also included are correspondence with editors, publishers, etc., book reviews, radio scripts adapted from her works, lecture notes, personal correspondence, biographical materials, photographs, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, memorabilia, and twelve reels of recording tape of interviews. Guide available in the library" (WorldCat). Cefali, Leslie. "Cynthia Rylant Remembers Childhood." Instructor, vol. 103 (Apr. 1994): p. 60. Gives ideas for discussing several of Rylant's books. Full text accessed 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Charlton, Ann Carper, The Implementation of Appalachian Folklore for a Secondary Curriculum. Hollins College Thesis. Roanoke, VA: Hollins College, 1986. 26 pp. Cherokees. Now and Then, vol. 3 (Autumn 1986). Issue on Cherokee Indians in Appalachia, with poetry, articles, fiction, book reviews, and photos. Edited by Pat Arnow, and Mary Chiltoskey. East Tennessee State Univ: Center for Appalachian Studies and Services. Articles: "The Story of My Life as Far Back as I Remember" by Aggie Ross Lossiah and edited by Joan Greene; "Goingback Chiltoskey, Master Carver," by Joan Greene; "Daughter of Tahlequah," a profile of storyteller Gayle Ross by Jill Oxendine; "Maggie Axe Wachacha: Beloved Woman of the Cherokees," by Patricia A. Swan; "Saving the Then for Now," by Pat Arnow; "Cherokee Eden (with Asides): An Alternative to the Apple," by Marilou Awiakta; "Marilou Awiakta: Eye of the Deer," by Parks Lanier; and "Fears and Challenges," by Robert Youngdeer. Short stories include "Brownies: A Cherokee Legend," by Ruth Ledford; and "The Tsali Legend," by John Parris. Child of Appalachia. Videocassette. De Kalb: Northern Illinois University, 1978. "A portrait of Rebecca Caudill, well-known author of children's books, educator, and humanitarian. Points out that her ability to produce literature that is both educational and enjoyable stems from a combination of her intellectual curiosity, colorful writing style, and a genuine love for children" (WorldCat).
Clarke, Mary Washington. Jesse Stuart's Kentucky. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
Compton, Joanne. "Ashpet: An Appalachian Folktale." Literature Lures: Using Picture Books and Novels to Motivate Middle School Readers. Ed. Nancy Polette and Joan Ebbesmeyer. Greenwood Village, CO: Teacher Ideas Press, 2002. In the section on Parody along with other "fractured fairy tales" in this thematically organized textbook.
Heinemann, Sandy. "Lee Smith: Capturing the Rugged Spirit of Appalachia."Virginia Libraries 35 (July/Sep. 1989).
Cochran, Lynn Scott. "Famous (if not yet rich!): Appalachian Mystery Writer Sharyn McCrumb." Virginia Libraries 35 (July/Sep. 1989).
Coggins, Timothy L. "Not in Our School: Anatomy of a Banned Books Challenge. An Interview with English Teacher Jeffry Newton." Virginia Libraries, vol. 46 (July./Sept. 2000).
Cole, Pam B. An Interview with Ruth White. The ALAN Review, vol. 22 (Winter 1995). Reprinted in full online.
Coombs, Kate. "Book Riff: Move Over, Steampunk!" Book Aunt blog, 16 Jan. 2009. Coombs, a writer in Los Angeles, identifies a coming trend she calls "rural fantasy" or "tall tale fantasy." She identifies pluck and "an American tall tale flavor" as features of these books. The Appalachian novels she discusses are two by Sally Keehn and Ingledove by Mary Youmans (see AppLit bibliography Appalachian Fiction for Children and Young Adult).
Cooper, Ilene. "The Booklist Interview: Cynthia Rylant." Booklist, vol. 89 (1 June 1 1993): p.1840. "Brief Summary: Rylant won the Newbery Award for her semi-autobiographical picture book 'When I Was Young in the Mountains.' Her childhood in Appalachia is discussed along with her work as an illustrator of children's books."
Copeland, Brenda S., and Patricia A. Messner. Using Picture Books to Teach Language Arts Standards in Grades 3-5. Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. Includes some Appalachian folktale and realistic picture books: Sody Sallyratus, Look Out, Jack! The Giant is Back!, Silver Packages, The Rag Coat, My Great-Aunt Arizona. "It features reproducible worksheets, writing activities, related reading based activities, and technology for grades three through five. The ideas have been tested in the authors' libraries and are linked to national curricular standards. Though school librarians are targeted as the main audience for this book, it also is a valuable resource for the classroom teacher and reading specialist" (product description).
Copley, Rich. "Paul Brett Johnson, Beloved Children's Author and Illustrator, Dies at 64." Entertainment section. Kentucky.com: News, Sports, and Entertainment from the Lexington Herald-Leader 3 June 2011.
Corey, Jean Thompson. "The Gendering of Literacies: The Reading and Writing Practices of Adolescent Girls in Rural Appalachia." Diss. Middle Tennessee State University, 2000. DAI 61 (2001): 2690-91A.
Craig, Melinda Hocker. "My Subjects Are My Objects A Sense of Place in the Works of Jesse Stuart, Wendell Berry and Robert Penn Warren." Paper submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the Jesse Stuart Fellowship, Murray State University, 1979.
Critcher, Renee. "Interview with Paul Brett Johnson, Children's Author & Illustrator." Appalachian Journal, vol. 30 (Summer 2003).
Davis, Ken, Ed. Literacy and Locality National Council of Teachers of English, 1986. Focus on regionalism (especially KY) in the teaching of English and language arts. Includes discussion of Jesse Stuart, Foxfire, and dialect differences in relation to teaching composition.
Dean Cadle Papers, 1919-1997. Archive materials on Cadle, Jesse Stuart, Rebecca Caudill and Harriette Arnow. University of KY Libraries, Lexington, KY.
Denson, Lynn Curry. Dialect in the Fiction of Jesse Stuart and Harriette Arnow. M.A. Thesis. West Georgia College, 1989.
Dick, David. Jesse Stuart The Heritage: A Biography. North Middletown, KY: Plum Lick Pub, 2005.
Drew, George. "Gone Now: An Elegy for a Kentucky Son." Kentucky Poetry Review 20. 2 (1984): 60-61. On Jesse Stuart.
Dyer, Joyce Coyne."Bringing Appalachia to Northeastern Ohio." English Journal, vol. 75 (Apr. 1986): pp. 22-27. ERIC Clearinghouse: CS732571. ERIC Abstract: "Describes teaching a unit on Appalachia in a six-week winter elective. Describes studying the people, coal mining, crafts, music, religion, and folklore of the region."
Edwards, Grace Toney, JoAnn Aust Asbury, and Ricky L. Cox, ed. A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region. Knoxville, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2006. Excellent introduction to regional studies by a variety of scholars, including a section by Roberta Herrin on children's literature.
Ewald, Wendy. Portraits and Dreams: Photographs and Stories by Children of the Appalachians. New York: Writers and Readers, 1985. Introduction by Robert Coles, afterword by Ben Lifson.123 pp. Reviewed by Paul Campbell in Appalachian Journal, vol. 13 (Summer 1986).
Encyclopedia of Appalachia. Ed. Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2006. Entries are arranged alphabetically within each section, such as Cultural Traditions: Folklore and Folklife, Cultural Traditions: Humor, Cultural Traditions: Language, Cultural Traditions: Literature. Entries by 1000 contributors. Contents overview, sample entries and background at encyclopedia web site. AP article on publication of the book by Duncan Mansfield, "Reference Book Tackles 'Hillbilly' Stereotype: Work Chronicles Facts on Appalachia," Louisville [KY] Courier-Journal 6 Mar. 2006. Similar article "Encyclopedia of Appalachia Offers Realistic Picture of Region" in Kingsport [Tenn.] Times-News 9 Mar. 2006. ETSU news report 3 Mar. 2006. Article by Bob Batz Jr., "Encyclopedia Opens Window on Appalachia," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 14 Mar. 2006.
Faught, Christian Leigh. Their Old Kentucky Home The Phenomenon of the Kentucky Burden in the Writing of James Still, Jesse Stuart, Allen Tate and Robert Penn Warren. M. A. Thesis. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2005.
Foster, Ruel E. Jesse Stuart. New York: Twayne, 1968.
Fowler, Virginia C., and Nikki Giovanni. Conversations with Nikki Giovanni. Literary Conversations series. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1992.
Fowler, Virginia C. Nikki Giovanni. New York: Twayne, 1992. A critical overview of Giovanni's poetic development. An appendix contains an interview of Giovanni by Fowler.
Fowler, Virginia C. "Nikki Giovanni’s Appalachian Ties." Appalachian Heritage, vol. 36, no. 3 (Summer 2008): pp. 42-50.
Frederick, Heather Vogel. "Cynthia Rylant: A Quiet and Reflective Craft." Interview. Publishers Weekly, vol. 244 (21 July 1997): pp. 178ff. "Abstract: Children's literature author Cynthia Rylant was delighted with her 1992 Newbery Medal award, feeling that she had not been a popular author to that point. Rylant works out of her Eugene, OR, home and guards her privacy by writing under a pseudonym." Gives overview of Rylant's career as writer and illustrator. Full text accessed 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Gilliam, Diane. "The Work Poetry Can Do." Appalachian Journal, vol. 34 (Spring/Summer 2007). A Special Issue on Appalachian Activism in Honor of Steve Fisher.
Giorgis, Cyndi, and Nancy J. Johnson. "The Language of Story." The Reading Teacher, vol. 54 (May 2001): p. 824. Includes paragraph on Ruth White's Memories of Summer.
Glasgow, Jackie. "From Ragsales to Mumblety-peg: The Search for Self in Appalachian Young Adult Literature." The ALAN Review, vol.31 (Summer 2004): 64-71.
Glen, J. M. Highlander: No Ordinary School. 2nd ed. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1996.
Golden, Susan. "Appalachia."
Book Links May 1991: pp. 14-21. Annotated bibliography.
Golden, Susan. "Reading the WorldAppalachia: An Update." Book Links May 1996: pp. 34-40. Annotated bibliography.
Hanlon, Tina L. "Folktales in Appalachian Fiction for Children and Young Adults." Paper presented at Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY, March 30, 2003. Abstract in AppLit.
Hanlon, Tina, and Judy Teaford. Never Too Old for Picture Books. Virginia English Bulletin, vol. 46 (Fall 1996): 7-20. Article on using picture books with older readers from junior high to college in classes on writing, literature, and environmental science.
Hanlon, Tina L. "Old and New Stories from Appalachia." The Five Owls, vol. XVII, issue III, 2004. Reprinted in The Five Owls web site.
Harris, Jo. "Jo Carson Interview." Appalachian Journal, vol. 20 (Fall 1992): pp. 56-67. Includes discussion of Carson's short stories and plays, including one she wrote about Dreiser, and The Bear Facts, a play about Davy Crockett. Carson comments on how "[b]eing from Appalachia has served me well."
Harris, Phillip White. A Linguistic Analysis of Selected Works of Jesse Stuart. M.A. Thesis. University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1987.
Herndon, Jerry A., George Brosi, James M. Gifford, and Jim Wayne Miller. Jesse Stuart, the Man & His Books. Ashville, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1988.
Heinemann, Sandy. "Lee Smith: Capturing the Rugged Spirit of Appalachia."Virginia Libraries 35 (July/Sep. 1989). Interview article.
Herrin, Roberta. "All That is Native and Fun: Jo Carson's Children's Books." Iron Mountain Review 14 (Summer 1998): 19-23.
Herrin, Roberta. "Appalachian Books for All Children." Now and Then, vol. 4.1 (1987): pp. 34-35. In special issue on Appalachian childhood (see Now and Then, below). Herrin assesses many books (old and new) in various genres of the often-ignored field of Appalachian children's literature. Biographies and historical fiction are plentiful but focus mainly on 18th- and 19-century heroes or country music personalities. "Poetry and fantasy are sparse," with most poetry derived from oral traditions. Realistic fiction is much more varied and abundant, dealing with many 20th-century concerns. Older books by May Justus and new novels by Virginia Hamilton are praised. Many informational books and picture books are also available. Full text available in ERIC, no. ED310896.
Herrin, Roberta T., and Sheila Quinn Oliver. Appalachian Children's Literature: An Annotated Bibliography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010. Foreword by George Ella Lyon. "This bibliography includes books written about or set in Appalachia from the 18th century to the present. Titles represent the entire region as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The bibliography is arranged in alphabetical order by author, and each title is accompanied by an annotation, most of which include composite reviews and critical analyses of the work" (from publisher).
Herrin, Roberta. "The Child and Appalachia: Rethinking Two Major American Symbols." Appalachia Inside Out: Culture and Custom. Vol 2. Ed. Robert J. Higgs, et al. Knoxville: Tennessee U Press, 1995. pp. 683-96. Shows how images of the child and Appalachia have been invented historically in comparable ways.
Herrin, Roberta. "The Culture and the Classroom." Appalachian Journal, vol. 29 (Summer 2002).
Herrin, Roberta. "Folk Medicine for the Wee Folk." Paper presented at Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY, March 30, 2003. Abstract in AppLit.
Herrin, Roberta. "From Poetry
to Picture Books: The Words of George Ella Lyon." In Her Words: Diverse
Voices in Contemporary Appalachian Women's Poetry. Ed. Felicia Mitchell.
Knoxville: Univ. of TN Press, 2002. pp. 166-76.
Herrin, Roberta. "Gloria Houston and the Burden of the 'Old Culture.'" Appalachian Journal, vol. 24. 1 (Fall 1996): pp. 30-42. ERIC Abstract: "Critiques the work of Appalachian writer Gloria Houston who has written six children's books based on the culture and history of rural North Carolina. Her most successful work, 'My Great-Aunt Arizona,' presents an alternative to the usual stereotypes of backwoods teacher and school. Includes a bibliography of Appalachian children's literature." ERIC item EJ536493 (available online).
Herrin, Roberta. "Missing the Point: Newbery Awards, Literary Tourism and God in the Potato Salad in New Children's Literature of Appalachia." Now and Then, vol. 10.1 (1993): pp. 40-42.
Herrin, Roberta. "On the Move in Appalachian Children's Fiction." Now & Then, vol. 7.2 (1990): pp. 38-39.
Herrin, Roberta T. "'Shall We Teach 'Em or Learn 'Em?':
Attitudes toward Language in Appalachian Children's Literature." Journal of
the Appalachian Studies Association, vol. 3 (1991): pp. 192-98. Available online through ERIC. Critiques the use of dialect in 8 novels for children set in Appalachia. Herrin observes that "false representations of Appalachian speech abound in children's books" but "two cultural phenomena are accurately demonstrated–assimilation and isolation," and "the language features most often singled out–might could, for example–are the common ones which purists and schoolmarms have sought to stamp out for decades with no success" (pp. 182-83). See AppLit bibliography Appalachian Fiction for Children and Young Adults under Crook, Lenski, Lee, Burch, Chaffin, Joos, and Holley.
Herrin, Roberta. "Universal Themes in Appalachian Children's Literature." Education in Appalachia: Proceedings from the 1987 Conference on Appalachia. University of KY: The Appalachian Center. pp. 117-23.
Higgs, Robert J., et al. Appalachia Inside Out: Culture and Custom. Vol. 2. Knoxville: Tennessee U Press, 1995.
Hillchild: A Folklore Chapbook about, for, and by West Virginia Children. Ed. Dr. Judy Byers and Noel W. Tenney, West Virginia Folklife Center, Fairmont State College. Vol. 1, 2002. Includes background on reading and writing stories (the theme of this first issue) as well as tales and pictures. "Cheryl Ware's Venola Mae 'Ramps Story" is accompanied by a recipe for rampy potatoes, drawings by school children, and a letter by author Cheryl Ware to readers and writers about writing the Venola books and how she makes them humorous. See also AppLit's Review of Hillchild.
Hinson, Carolyn M. "Appalachian Literature and the Adolescent Reader." ALAN Review, vol. 11, no. 1 (Fall 1983): pp. 4-10. Discusses the portrayal of Appalachian mountain life in five young adult novels (note by Linnea Hendrickson).
Houck, Jean Wilson, and Deborah Hamm-Schwartz. Winners A Study Guide for Jesse Stuart's Junior Books. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1992.
Hurst, Carol Otis. "Appalachia." Originally published in Teaching K-8, vol. 24 (1994, see below). Carol Hurst's Children's Literature Site, 1999. This web page devoted to Appalachian children's literature includes an example of Webbing (a brainstorming activity), a Chart of Books on Appalachia, and sections on Cynthia Rylant, Nonfiction Reading, Picture Books, and Novels. Also links to pages on Phyllis Reynolds Naylor and Shiloh, Lois Lowry and Rabble Starkey, Katherine Paterson and Come Sing, Jimmy Jo. This site also has pages on Betsy Byars and Virginia Hamilton.
Hurst, Carol Otis. "Exploring Appalachia without a Backpack: Teaching in the Library." Teaching Pre K-8, vol. 24 (May 1994): pp. 96-98. ERIC Clearinghouse: PS521764. ERIC Abstract: Reviews nine . . . books on Appalachia: (1) "Appalachia: Voices of the Sleeping Birds" (Rylant); (2) "My Great-Aunt Arizona" (Houston); (3) "Trouble at the Mines" (Rappaport); (4) "Sweet Creek Holler" (White); (5) "In Coal Country" (Hendershot, Allen); (6) "Coal Mine Peaches" (Dionetti, Riggio); (7) "Moonshiner's Son" (Reeder); (8) "Rabble Starkey" (Lowry); and (9) "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" (Paterson).
The Jesse Stuart Collection. Archival material. Berea College Hutchins Library Special Collections and Archives, Berea, KY. See also:
A collection of letters (1967-1974) in Ohio University archives, Athens, OH
Jesse Stuart Papers, 1936-1958, manuscripts at Univ. of KY, Lexington, KY
Grant C. Knight Papers, 1924-1955, Univ. of KY, Lexington, KY
Dean Cadle Papers, 1919-1997, Univ. of KY, Lexington, KY
Jesse Stuart Papers, ca. 1928-1984, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC
Papers of Jesse Stuart 1939-1971, and Letters to Dayton Kohlerm 1955-1960, Univ. of Virginia Libraries, Charlottesville, VA
Southern Folklife Collection Artist Name Files, 1940-2005, Southern Historical Collection, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Julian, Norman. Homer H. Hickam, Jr. Interview. MountainLit. Ed. Phyllis Wilson Moore. 1999. Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, WV. Hickam wrote Rocket Boys, about "four real-life boys at Big Creek High School, in War. In the late 1950's, they decide to build rockets to rival the Russians." (The film October Sky was based on this book.) Another page contains Review of Rocket Boys by Julian. Both include quotations and photos.
Julian, Norman. "West Virginia Writers Hold Their Own in Literature: The Writing Life." MountainLit. Ed. Phyllis Wilson Moore. 2002. Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, WV. Article discusses teacher Jo Ann Dadisman and her efforts to help students build positive images of their roots through teaching about WV literature and language.
Julian-Goebel, Teressa. "The Voice of an Appalachian Author: Cynthia Rylant." Ohio Reading Teacher, vol. 26 (Fall 1991): pp. 4-10. ERIC Abstract: "Interviews children's author, Cynthia Rylant, who openly shares her thoughts and feelings about being an author, a parent, and a young woman from Appalachia."
Justus, May. See Links and References in AppLit bibliography Books by May Justus.
The Kentucky Authors Series. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 1985. University Extension in cooperation with the Department of English. Eight sound cassettes with biographical notebook on Harriette Arnow, Wendell Berry, James Baker Hall, Gayl Jones, Thomas Merton, Gurney Norman, James Still, and Robert Penn Warren. c. 6 hours.
The Kentucky Authors Series. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 1989. University Extension in cooperation with the Department of English. Four sound cassettes with biographical notebook on Leon V Driskell, Bobbie Ann Mason, Ed McClanahan, Jesse Stuart. University of KY Extension in cooperation with the Department of English. c. 3 hours.
Kentucky Educational Television. Jesse Stuart. VHS videotape. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1986. 30 min.
Kirk, Luther R. "Learning to Read: Painful Mystery or Joyful Success?" Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, vol. 44 (Feb. 2001): p. 420. Includes discussion of some children's books and experiences from Kirk's Appalachian background, and a list of books with Appalachian themes.
Kupitz, Gabriele. "Hope and Homecoming in Recent Books on Appalachia for Young Readers." Bookbird, vol. 37.2 (1999): pp. 38-42. Concentrates on picture books for younger children.
Laine, Rebecca. "Sharyn McCrumb: A Novelist Looks at the Southern Mountains." Virginia Libraries, vol. 43 (July./Sept. 1997).
Learning about Mountains: An On-line Guide to Resources for Teachers and Kids. The Find a Resource section contains pages on individual books, journals, and web resources. In The Mountain Institute web site. Most of the books listed as Appalachian are about the southern Appalachian mountains, but some are set in the North.
Leeper, A "The 'Other America': Looking at Appalachian and Cajun/Creole Resources." Multicultural Review, vol. 12 (2003): pp. 34-42. ERIC item EJ669084. ERIC abstract: "Reviews a collection of children's books on Appalachian and Cajun/Creole culture. Asserts that as children study the United States and its many cultures and subcultures, they should be exposed to Appalachian and Cajun/Creole resources and learn how these peoples continue to define themselves and maintain their cultures." The article points out that research on Appalachian literature for children and young adults is scant compared to other American literature, while there is "almost nothing" available on Cajun/Creole literature. Most of the books listed and annotated were published in the previous decade.
LeMaster, J. R., and Mary Washington Clarke. Jesse Stuart, Essays on His Work. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1977.
Littleton, David G., and Lewis W. Barnes. Structure of Dialect in Short Stories and Poetry of Jesse Stuart. M.A. Thesis. Morehead State University, 1970.
Long, Susan. "Family Heritage: History and Folklore." Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness, vol. 1 (Fall-Winter 1993): 6-11. ERIC Abstract: "As a means of integrating Appalachian culture and folklore into the curriculum, a fifth-grade social studies unit has students create a personal history book by studying the origin and history of their own name, developing their own memory stories, developing a family tree, studying family artifacts and old photographs, and interviewing family members. Includes 32 Appalachian resources."
Loveland, George. "A Greater Fairness: May Justus as Popular Educator." Journal of Research in Rural Education, vol. 17 (Fall 2001): pp. 102-11. Reprinted with full text in AppLit, 2002.
Loveland, George W. "The Highlander Library: Educating for a People's Democracy." Virginia Libraries, vol. 44 (Jan./Mar. 1998).
Lowe, Jimmy, Jerry A. Herndon, James M. Gifford, and Chuck D. Charles. Jesse Stuart, the Boy from the Dark Hills. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1990.
Lyon, George Ella. See AppLit bibliography Books by George Ella Lyon.
Lyon, George Ella. "Contemporary Appalachian Poetry: Sources and Directions." In A Gift of Tongues: Critical Challenges in Contemporary American Poetry. Ed. Marie Harris and Kathleen Aguero. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1987. pp. 307-320.
McKinney, Gordon. Appalachian Bibliography—Books and Appalachian Bibliography—Articles, 2005. Books and articles on Appalachia listed by a variety of subjects, including Literature, Education, and Culture. Available as pdf files from Appalachian Studies Center, Berea College, Berea, KY.
Martin, Judy. Choosing Books for Appalachian Children: An Annotated Bibliography. Berea, KY: Berea College, 1982. Reviewed by Una Mae L. Reck in Appalachian Journal, vol. 10 (Winter 1983).
Matthews, Carolyn L. "Appalachian Literature and the Adolescent Reader." ALAN Review, vol. 11. (Fall 1983): pp 11-12, 47-48. Discusses Trial Valley and Where the Lilies Bloom by Vera and Bill Cleaver, A Ballad for Hogskin Hill By James Forman, Fair Annie of Old Mule Hollow by Beverly Courtney Crook and The People Therein by Mildred Lee. From a sociological perspective and literary perspective, these novels show the influence of family and the environment without stereotyping or overgeneralization.
Mead, Susan Virginia. "Sociological Threads Within the Quilt of Appalachian Childrens Literature: A Survey of Historical Fiction." Presented at the Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Knoxville, TN, Mar. 25, 2000. Bibliography reprinted in AppLit.
Miller, Danny. "A MELUS Interview: Wilma Dykeman."The Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States) Dykeman discusses teaching Appalachian literature and writing about Appalachia.
Miller, Danny, Sharon Hatfield, and Gurney Norman, eds. An American Vein: Critical Readings in Appalachian Literature. Athens: Ohio U Press, 2005. Twenty-nine essays by a variety of authors and critics.
Miller, Jim Wayne. Reading, Writing, Region: A Checklist, Purchase Guide, and Directory for School and Community Libraries in Appalachia. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Consortium, 1984.
Mitchell, Felicia, ed. Her Words: Diverse Voices in Contemporary Appalachian Women's Poetry. Knoxville: Univ. of TN Press, 2002. The book does not focus on children's literature, but it includes writings by and about writers such as Marilou Awiakta, Jo Carson, Nikki Giovanni, Patricia Johnson, and George Ella Lyon (with essay by Roberta Herrin on Lyon's poems and picture books). Giovanni's poem "Knoxville, Tennessee" (p. 107) has been published as a picture book.
Modisett, Cara Ellen. "The Future of the Mountains: 25 Gen-X and Gen-Y People Making a Difference." Blue Ridge Country July/Aug. 2013: 56-63. Short pieces on writers, musicians, artists, educators, activists, including Silas House and Theresa Burriss. The online version and web site include audio and video excerpts of interviews.
Moore, Phyllis Wilson. "Refuting the Legend of the PIWASH." Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness, vol. 2 (Spring-Summer, 1994). Revised in 2001 and reprinted in full in MountainLit. Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, West Virginia. This essay on images of West Virginia among outsiders and natives discusses the views of several authors, especially paying tribute to the contributions of Jim Wayne Miller's lectures at Hindman Appalachian Writers' Workshops, Hindman, Kentucky.
Mordoh, Alice Morrison. "Folklife in the Work of Mitsumasa Anno." Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol. 10 (Fall 1985): pp. 104-108. Available through library services such as Project Muse. This article by a folklorist analyzes the blend of art and cultural history in several picture books by Mitsumasa Anno. In Anno's USA (Philomel, 1983), she describes "the beginning of a blanket toss, which is concluded on the next page, somewhere in Appalachia, adjacent to a tobacco harvest, potato picking, corn shucking, a rural school lesson, and a logging scene. On the next page, a southern highland community buzzes with life: blacksmith, farrier, wheelwright, cobbler, basket weavers, spinners and quilters, hunters returning with dog and deer, people pitching and hauling hay, harvesting potatoes, and children at play."
Morgan, Stacy I. "Migration, Material Culture, and Identity in William Attaway's 'Blood on the Forge' and Harriette Arnow's 'The Dollmaker.'" College English, vol. 63 (July 2001): pp. 17-40. Abstract in ERIC. ERIC item EJ629187.
MountainLit lists books by West Virginia authors and books set in West Virginia, with other resources and photos of some authors. Separate sections on children's literature and folklore. Web site by Phyllis Wilson Moore, Bridgeport Public Library in Bridgeport, West Virginia.
Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds, Tim Podell, and Eric Matyas. A Talk with Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. Good Conversation! Author Interview Series. VHS tape. Scarborough, NY: Tim Podell Productions, 1991.
Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds. "The Writing of Shiloh." Reading Teacher, vol. 46 (1992): 10-12. Available in ERIC.
Now and Then, vol. 4.1 (Spring 1987). Guest editor Pauline Cheek. Johnson City, TN: Center for Appalachian Studies and Services, East Tennessee State Univ. Special issue on Appalachian childhood. Essays, stories ("Thief in the Night" by Jan Barnet, "The Flood" by Drema S. Redd, and "Soul Train Ride" by Judy Odom), reviews (of 3 picture books–see Bein, below, and Eliot Wigginton's Sometimes a Shining Moment: The Foxfire Experience), interviews, memories, photos, and poems, including Marilou Awiakta's memoir with poems on her childhood, "OUT! Children at Play: Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1945-1950" (pp. 13-15). "An ABC to Bledsoe, Harlan County, KY" by Pauline Cheek contains an alphabet that she helped children of Bledsoe write. Throughout this issue are excerpts with childhood memories from Golden Days, a Tennessee Dept. of Education oral history project. Full text of issue available in ERIC, no. ED310896.
Obermiller, Phillip J., ed. Down Home, Downtown: Urban Appalachians Today. Papers presented at the Conference of the Urban Appalachian Council Research Committee (Cincinnati, OH, September 1995). 1996. 208 pp. Several papers deal with literature. Abstract and full text in ERIC. ERIC item ED443642.
The Oral History of Appalachia Program. Marshall State University, Huntington, WV.
Owens, William T. "Country Roads, Hollers, Coal Towns, and Much More: A Teacher's Guide To Teaching about Appalachia." The Social Studies, vol. 91 (Jul.-Aug. 2000): pp. 178-86. After finding nothing on the region in a teacher supply story in an Appalachian city, Owens collected material on the southern Appalachian region and encourages teachers everywhere to include it in their multicultural studies. ERIC Abstract: "Describes the geographic and economic aspects of Appalachia. Asserts that Appalachia is an appropriate topic within multicultural education. Provides suggestions for entry points into the study of Appalachia and guidelines for avoiding stereotyping." Owens recommends Ashpet and other literature for introducing Appalachian culture in the classroom. The long bibliography covers many topics, giving grade levels recommended for literature. Full text (with some typos) accessed 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Owens, William T. "An Examination of Picture Story Books that Teach Children about Appalachia" (Part 2). Southern Social Studies Journal, vol. 27 (Fall 2001): pp. 3-19. ERIC Abstract: "Presents a summary of 'An Examination of Picture Story Books that Teach Children about Appalachia (Part 1).' Offers an annotated bibliography of 10 picture story books about Appalachia. Each bibliographic entry includes a summary, a listing of Appalachian names and vocabulary words, the target reading audience, and National Council for the Social Studies standards.
Owens, William T. "Picture Story Books that Teach Children about Appalachia: Problems, Perplexities, and Proposals." Southern Social Studies Journal. Part 2 in vol. 27 (Fall 2001): pp. 3-19. ERIC item EJ638264. Part 3 in vol. 28 (Fall 2002): pp. 3-21. ERIC item EJ663664. Abstracts in ERIC.
Owens, William T. and Linda S. Nowell. "More Than Just Pictures: Using Picture Story Books to Broaden Young Learners' Social Consciousness." The Social Studies, vol. 92 (Jan. 2001): pp. 33ff. Includes annotated bibliography. Although it does not discuss Appalachia, this guide to teaching picture books in social studies includes Cynthia Rylant's Mr. Griggs' Work and Lauren Mills' The Rag Coat.
Pasternak, Donna L. "Teaching Literature Methods in Appalachia: Moving from Stereotypes to Authentic Engagement through Appalachian Language and Literature in the Classroom." Paper presented at the Annual Spring Conference of the National Council of Teachers of English (New York, March 16, 2000). ERIC Document Number ED445335 (full text in ERIC). 7 pp. ERIC Abstract: "This paper relates the experiences of an English professor at Marshall University in West Virginia, transplanted from her northeastern home to Appalachia. The paper gives an overview of Marshall and its student and points out that most of the professor's education comes from listening to her students' and new acquaintances' stories. It notes that her students' experiences with educational systems are different from her own, and that some of her students in 'Approaches to Teaching Literature' struggle because they cannot reconcile the idea of teaching a primary text from a pedagogical stance. According to the paper, the author/professor, in helping to develop the university's teacher education program, has learned that she needs to foster a means to have her students look at themselves and their literatures as culturally and artistically significant even before teaching pedagogy and methods. The paper states that future units will incorporate more Appalachian literature and heritage to allow students to celebrate their roots and dreams."
Pauley, Michael Joseph. "Songs of the Hills: Poetry in West Virginia." Wonderful West Virginia: A Special Issue West Virginia Poetry, Charleston, WV, November, 1986. Reprinted in full in MountainLit. Ed. Phyllis Wilson Moore. Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, West Virginia. Gives "an overview of the development of poetry in West Virginia."
Peck, Richard. "Writing in a Straight Line." The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 73 (Sept.-Oct. 1997): pp. 529ff. "Abstract: Authors of books for children and young people should make their stories simple without oversimplifying them. Inexperienced readers may become confused when stories contain elements such as flashbacks or stories within stories." Includes mention of Ruth White's Belle Prater's Boy as an example showing that "the absent parent is a preoccupation of young adult novels in the 1990s."
Rickey, Melissa J., and Darcey H. Bradley. “Appalachian Writers and Writing.” Book Links 9 (July 2000): 13-18. On children’s literature resulting from oral tradition.
Roberts, Tracy L. "Teaching Appalachia." AppLit, Apr. 2002. Full text in AppLit.
Rosenblum, Andrew. "Kentucky Mountain Classics." Mother Jones May/June 1999 (Vol. 24 Issue 3): pp. 73ff. ERIC Abstract: Focuses on books, music recordings and films about Appalachia. Close to Home: Old Time Music From Mike Seeger's Collection 1952-1967, by various artists; Harlan County, U.S.A., directed by Barbara Kopple; River of Earth, by James Still; Appalachian Legacy, by Shelby Lee Adams; Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930, by Ronald Eller.
Schmidt, Gary. "Appalachian Spring." The Five Owls May/June 1991: pp. 107-9. Discusses features of Appalachian culture and land conveyed in about a dozen children's books by Cynthia Rylant and others.
Schmidt, Gary. "The Mythic Dimensions of Appalachia." Many Faces, Many Voices: Multicultural Literary Experiences for Youth: The Virginia Hamilton Conference. [Kent State University] Ed. Anthony L. Manna and Carolyn S. Brodie. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1992.
Shelby, Anne Gabbard. Appalachian Literature and American Myth: A Study of Fiction from the Southern Mountains. M.A. Thesis. University of KY, Lexington, KY, 1981.
Silvey, Anita. "An Interview with Cynthia Rylant." The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 63 (Nov-Dec 1987): pp. 694ff.
Sleeter, C. E., and C. A. Grant. Making Choices for Multicultural Education: Five Approaches to Race, Class, and Gender. 3rd. ed. Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Merrill, 1999. According to Owens, (in "Country Roads," see above), Sleeter and Grant discuss "Appalachians specifically in relation to the topics of dialect, content relevance, and single-group studies," giving recommendations for handling dialect differences in classrooms.
Smith, Jennifer Sue. “Mining the Mountain of Appalachian Children’s Literature: Defining a Multicultural Literature.” Ph.D. diss., The Ohio State University, 2001. 207 pp.
Smith, Jennifer. "The Music of Appalachian Children's Literature." Children and Libraries, vol. 5 (Winter 2007): 31-37. Smith discusses the types of traditional music (ballads, hymns, folk songs, play rhymes) that are more prominent in children's books than bluegrass or country western music. "Much can be learned of Appalachian history and heritage by investigating the music found in these stories" (p. 31). She analyzes a number of novels and picture books in which music has a central role, with background on the origins of their songs. "The song picture book is a unique and useful format" (p. 35). This article also contains general background on Appalachian children's literature with an annotated bibliography of books from the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Smith, Newton. "Jesse Stuart: Education's Folk Hero." Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Appalachian Studies Association. Boone, NC, March 1998. Available from ERIC, U. S. Dept. of Education. Detailed summary in Worldcat.
Sneed, Nedra Ann. “Interactional Discourse Used in Book Reading by Urban Appalachian Mothers and Their Preschool Children.” Ed.D. diss., University of Cincinnati, 2000. 141 pp.
Snyder, Bob. "The Thread That Runs So Bodacious." Appalachian Journal, vol. 20. 1 (1992): 24-34. "Reviews Jesse Stuart on Education, edited by J. R. LeMaster, an anthology that presents a loosely chronological record of the student and teaching experiences of Jesse Stuart, eastern Kentucky writer and progressive educator. Contains an unpublished manuscript chapter from Stuart's The Thread That Runs So True" (summary from Worldcat).
Straw, Richard and Tyler Blethen, eds. High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place. Champaign, IL: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2004. Essays uniting history and culture of Appalachia.
Spurlock, John Howard. He Sings for Us: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Appalachian Subculture and of Jesse Stuart As a Major American Author. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1980.
Stoddart, Jess. Challenge and Change in Appalachia: The Story of Hindman Settlement School. Lexington: Univ. Press of KY, 2002.
Stone, May and Katherine Pettit. The Quare Women's Journals: May Stone & Katherine Pettit's Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School. Ed. Jess Stoddart. Ashland, KY: J. Stuart Foundation, 1997. Observations on eastern Kentucky families and education 1899-1901, recorded by women labeled the "Quare Women" by those they came to serve.
Stuart, James, Glennis Stuart Liles, and Thayle K. Anderson. Come Drink of Lonesome Waters A Guide to Jesse Stuart's W-Hollow Homeland. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 2001.
Stuart, Jesse, and J. R. LeMaster. Jesse Stuart on Education. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1992.
Stuart, Jesse. To Teach, To Love. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1987. 336 pp. "The Kentucky novelist, poet, and teacher Jesse Stuart describes his experiences as student and teacher" (from overview of the book in ERIC).
Sutton, Roger. "An Interview with Katherine Paterson." The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 77 (Nov.-Dec. 2001): pp. 689ff. Full text accessed 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Includes discussion of Paterson's religious background, the writing of Bridge to Terabithia, and other books.
Teaford, Judy A. "Contemporary Appalachian Picture Books." M. A. Thesis. Marshall Univ. Graduate College, 1998.
Teaford, Judy A. "'Miz Jackson was just talking outta her head, girl': A Survey of Realism in Appalachian Picture Books." Presented at the Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Knoxville, TN, Mar. 25, 2000. Reprinted with full text in AppLit.
Teaford, Judy A. "Revisiting the Tatum Family: Regional Books by Ruth and Latrobe Carroll." Presented at Virginia Humanities Conference, Ferrum College, April 1998. Reprinted with full text in AppLit, 2000.
Thomas, Carolyn K. “The Portrayal of the Cherokee in Children’s Fiction Books.” Ed.D. diss., Oklahoma State University, 2001. 118 pp.
Troy, Anne. "Appalachia in Children's and Adolescents' Fiction." Language Arts, vol. 54 (Jan. 1977): pp. 55-58. A bibliographic essay focusing on the characteristics of children's literature of the Appalachian region. Includes a bibliography.
Valentine, Valerie. "Authenticity and Accuracy in Picture Storybooks Set in Appalachia." Journal of Appalachian Studies, vol. 14 (Spring-Fall 2008): pp. 49-61.
Valentine, Valerie D. "An Investigation of Authenticity and Accuracy in Children's Realistic Fiction Picture Books Set in Appalachia." Ph.D. Diss. Ohio University, 2008. 252 pp. DAI 69:912A. "Valentine analyzes fifty-two realistic fictional picture books and finds that they are generally accurate and authentic in their portrayals of Appalachia" (summary from Children's Literature 2009).
Varley, Pamela. "As Good as Reading? Kids and the Audiobook Revolution." The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 78 (May-June 2002): pp. 251ff. An editorial articles that includes discussion of differences between reading and listening to a difficult scene in Ruth White's Weeping Willow. Full text accessed 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Waitt, Alden. "'A Good Story Takes Awhile': Appalachian Literature in the High School Classroom." Journal of Appalachian Studies, vol.12 (Spring 2006): pp. 79-101. Abstract in ERIC. ERIC item EJ767586. Authors recommended include Sharyn McCrumb, Barbara Kingsolver, Chris Holbrook, and Fred Chappell.
Ward, Diane. "Cynthia Rylant." The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 69 (July-August 1993): pp. 420ff. "Brief Summary: Author Cynthia Rylant bases her children's books on her own childhood in Appalachia and has added to the self-esteem of many poor children from the area. Rylant's personality, grandparents, and son Nate, 14, are discussed." Full text accessed 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Wells, Rosemary. Rosemary Wells: 2010 National Book Festival. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Uploaded 8 Oct. 2010. Thirty-minute talk by the author-illustrator of many kinds of books. Her middle grade novels Red Moon at Sharpsburg and Mary on Horseback are set in Appalachia. Wells commented that she writes for the brightest children, never dumbing things down like TV does. Her main goal is to get children to open a book, love what they find there, and enjoy "a private scaffold to adventure." This love leads to "the art of critical thinking." Wells maintains that children hate teacher-prepared questions and that television does not offer the scaffolding and individual choices that books do. She stressed the importance of parents in children's education and reading. She introduced three recent books: Max and Ruby's Bedtime Book (3 stories); her time-travel novel set in Depression America, Blue Comet; and My Havana, based on a true story of a boy who missed Cuba after moving to New York. She answered a child's question by explaining that Ruby and Max were based on her own children, beginning thirty years earlier.
West, Mark I. "Some Thoughts on Censorship, Religion, and Multiculturalism: An Interview with Gail E. Haley." Journal of Children's Literature, vol.22 (Spring 1996): pp. 20-21. Libraries, schools, and religious groups have subjected many of Haley’s books, including Mountain Jack Tales (1992), to censorship.
West, Mark I. "Growing Up in the New South as Reflected in Children’s Literature." Includes discussion of several Appalachian books with comments contributed by different scholars. The Five Owls, vol. XVII, issue III, 2004. Reprinted in The Five Owls web site, with Bibliography.
Whitehurst, Lucinda S., and Wilma J. Snyder. "Middle Grade Picture Books." School Library Journal, vol. 46 (Oct. 2000): pp. 38 ff. Includes ideas for teaching many concepts of literature and language picture books, with references on teaching with picture books and several Appalachian examples (by Cynthia Rylant, Ruth White, and George Ella Lyon) for pairing novels with picture books. Full text accessed 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Wilburn, Herb. Characteristics of Good Appalachian Literature. Appalachian Literature. James Madison Univ. An online essay with general guidelines and a some comments on selecting traditional literature for children, with links to a bibliography and other Appalachian Resources.
Williams, Cratis D. I Become a Teacher: A Memoir of One-Room School Life in Eastern Kentucky. Ed. James M. Gifford. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation,1995. 99 pp. ERIC Abstract: "This book is a memoir of one-room school life in 1929. In his day, Cratis D. Williams (1911-85) was America's foremost scholar on the Appalachian experience. This book is the story of his first teaching assignment at age 18 in a one-room K-8 school on Caines Creek in Lawrence County, Kentucky. Williams details his classroom practices and innovations and describes his students, his own and students' daily lives, and special school events and holidays. His teaching philosophy was unique. He assumed that all children were capable, eager, and industrious. Proceeding on that assumption, he laid down no rules. Rather, he referred to the desire of everyone to be thoughtful and considerate of others and to have others return thoughtfulness and consideration. . . . His good will and spirit of tolerance were the foundation stones of his 'educational statesmanship,' and he claims that his success as a public person was due to his having accepted himself with confidence as an Appalachian. Includes two short autobiographical statements, photographs, and an index."
Williams, Cratis D. Tales From Sacred Wind: Coming of Age in Appalachia. Eds. David Cratis Williams and Patricia D. Beaver. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2003. Williams' writings about his family, early life, and education, including a version of "Mutts Mag" from his grandmother, other examples of his writings on various types of Appalachian folkways, and "Why a Mountain Boy Should Be Proud"—an article he wrote in high school.
Williamson, J. W., and Edwin T. Arnold, eds. Interviewing Appalachia: The Appalachian Journal Interviews 1978-1992. Knoxville, U of Tennessee Press, 1994. Twenty-two interviews with Appalachian men and women, including James Still, Marilou Awiakta, Jo Carson, Gurney Norman, Lee Smith. Arranged by dates of birth, from Myles Horton (founder of Highlander Folk School) to Pinkney Benedict. (Reviewed by Judith Jennings in
Worthington, Marianne. "Appalachian Literature and Senior Learners." Appalachian Journal, vol. 29 (Summer 2002).
Appalachia." Abstract in ERIC. ERIC item EJ670238.Reaching Kids Where They Live: Appalachian Artist and Storyteller Paul Brett Johnson." Now & Then, vol. 20 (Spring 2003): pp. 31-34. Themed issue: "Raised Up in the Mountains: The Youth of
Worthington, Marianne. Writers and Writing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: A Selected Bibliography. Williamsburg, KY: M. Worthington, 2000. 20 pp. "Prepared for the Appalachian Writers Workshop, Hindman Settlement School, July, 2000."
Note: For reviews of folk narratives, see Appalachian Folktales: Background Resources on One Author, Illustrator, Storyteller, Dramatist or Filmmaker. See also article by Carol Hurst (above) for reviews of 9 Appalachian children's books. See also, in Links section, Lesson Plans and Other Resources for Teachers. See also AppLit's Study Guides, Lesson Plans, and Articles sections.
Ancona, George (photographer). Pioneer Children of Appalachia. Review by Elizabeth S. Watson. The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 63 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): p. 67. Review Grade: B.
Ancona, George (photographer). Pioneer Children of Appalachia. Review by Janet Hickman. Language Arts, vol. 64 (March 1987): pp. 312ff. Review Grade: A.
Ancona, George (photographer). Pioneer Children of Appalachia. Review by Katharine Bruner. School Library Journal, vol. 33 (Nov. 1986): p. 71. Review Grade: A.
Anderson, Joan. See Bein, below.
Appelt, Kathi and Jeanne Cannella Schmitzer. Down Cut Shin Creek: The Pack Horse Librarians of Kentucky. The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 77 (May 2001): p. 345. Review accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Appelt, Kathi and Jeanne Cannella Schmitzer. Down Cut Shin Creek: The Pack Horse Librarians of Kentucky. School Library Journal, vol. 47 (May 2001): p161. Review by Angela J. Reynolds accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Appelt: Smith, Cynthia Leitich. "Interview with Children's and YA Book Author Kathi Appelt" and "The Story Behind the Story: Kathi Appelt on Down Cut Shin Creek." In Children's and YA Author Cynthia Leitich Smith. 2001.
Awiakta, Marilou - see Marilou Awiakta: Bibliography
Bein, Miriam. Review of The Adventure of Charlie and his Wheat-Straw Hat by Berniece T. Hiser, Pioneer Children of Appalachia by Joan Anderson, and The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant. Now and Then, vol. 4.1 (Spring 1987): p. 32. In special issue on Appalachian childhood. Bein praises Hiser's use of dialect and Mary Szilagyi's illustrations. Favorable review of all three books, especially Stephen Gammell's Caldecott-honor illustrations for The Relatives Came.
Busse and Martin, Banjo Granny: Stevenson, Deborah. "Banjo Granny (Review)." Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books 60. 5 (2007): 205-206. Other reviews and study guide on Martin's web site.
Carson, Jo. Stories I Ain't Told Nobody Yet: Selections from the People Pieces. Review by George Ella Lyon. Appalachian Journal, vol. 17 (Fall 1989).
Carter, Forrest. The Education of Little Tree. Several critiques of this book, a fictional autobiography of a Cherokee boy in Tennessee written by a white writer named Asa Carter, are found in Debbie Reese's web site American Indians in Children's Literature.
Cheek, Pauline. Appalachian Scrapbook: An A,B,C, of Growing Up in the Mountains. Review by Llewellyn McKernan. Appalachian Journal, vol. 15 (Summer 1988).
Cleaver, Vera and Bill. "Where the Lilies Bloom by Vera and Bill Cleaver." Book Links May 1991: 8-10. Article by Pat Scales.
Crum, Shutta. Spitting Image. School Library Journal, vol 49 (Apr. 2003): p. 157. Review by Cindy Darling Codell accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Dyer, Joyce, ed. Bloodroot: Reflections on Place by Appalachian Women Writers. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1998. Review by Nancy Carol Joyner accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP, from NWSA Journal, vol. 11 (Fall 1999): p. 195.
Ebel, Julia Taylor. Addie Clawsen: Appalachian Mail Carrier. Illus. Sherry Jensen. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 2004. Addie Clawsen carried mail in the Boone, NC area for 30 years beginning in 1936, when few other women held such jobs on rural routes. See page on this book in Julia Taylor Ebel's web site, with downloadable study guide.
Gibbons, Faye. The Day the Picture Man Came. Booklist 99.12 (Feb 15, 2003): 1074(1). Positive review by Ellen Mandel accessed online 1/12/08 through Academic OneFile. Gale.
Hermes, Patricia. Sweet By and By. School Library Journal, vol. 48 (Oct. 2002): p. 164. Review by Barbara Auerbach accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
Hickam, Homer H., Jr. Review of Rocket Boys by Norman Julian. MountainLit. Ed. Phyllis Wilson Moore. 1999. Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, West Virginia. Review of the book about "four real-life boys at Big Creek High School, in War. In the late 1950's, they decide to build rockets to rival the Russians." Includes quotes from interview with Hickam and photos. (The film October Sky was based on this book.) Another page contains Homer H. Hickam, Jr. Interview by Julian.
Hicks folktales. See AppLit bibliography Ray and Orville Hicks, Storytellers of North Carolina / Print & Online Resources.
Hiser, Berniece. See Bein, above.
House, Silas. Author's web site gives links to teaching guides for Eli the Good and Same Sun Here. Blog essay by House called "Silas House: Eli the Good" at Teanreads.com. 18 Feb. 2011.
LaFaye, A. "New Voice: A. LaFaye on Walking Home to Rosie Lee." 5 Dec. 2011. Interview with Cynthia Leitich Smith in Cynsations site. In this interview about her first picture book, Walking Home to Rosie Lee (2011), LaFaye discusses the lack of children's books about the reunification of African American families during Reconstruction, this book's origins in research she did for her novel Stella Stands Alone (set in Mississippi), and her editor Lee Byrd of Cinco Puntos Press.
Lyon, George Ella. See AppLit bibliography Books by George Ella Lyon.
Madden, Kerry. Smith, Scot. "Carolina Dreams: Kerry Madden and the Saga of the Weems Family of Maggie Valley." The ALAN Review, vol. 36, no. 3. (Summer 2009). Available online from Virginia Tech. Includes interview with Madden about influences (including previous Appalachian writers) and background on her Maggie Valley novels.
Miller, Jim Wayne: Beattie, L. Elizabeth. "Jim Wayne Miller's Newfound." The ALAN Review 18.1 (Fall 1990): 35-37. "An Appalachian poet writes his first YA novel; how the conversational tone and Appalachian setting echo Miller's distinct voice and sense of place" (summary from Children's Literature Association Quarterly 18, Summer 1993).
Moser: Moser, Barry. "Family Photographs, Gathered Fragments." The New Advocate 4.1 (Winter 1991): 1-9. "Early influences, his first illustrations for a children's book, Jump (1986) by Van Dyke Parks, which was followed by Truman Capote's I Remember Grandpa (1988), Cynthia Rylant's Appalachia, The Voices of Sleeping Birds (1991) and his own retelling of Andersen's The Tinderbox (1990). (Article summary from Children's Literature Association Quarterly 18, Summer 1993). See also Rylant, below.
Naylor: Fisher, Leona. "'I'm thinking nothing is as simple as you guess:' Narration in Phyllis Reynolds Naylor's Shiloh." Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol. 28 (Spring 2003): 17-25. Fisher argues that in Shiloh, Marty's first-person narration in present tense is a remarkably unusual and compelling narrative strategy, explaining why this children's novel captivates readers who are not usually interested in "boy and his dog stories." In addition to discussing narratalogical issues in detail, Fisher notes Naylor's success in using dialect in the narration, not just in dialogue, and in making Marty's occasionally generalizations and critiques of his rural culture convincing.
Mills, Claudia. "The Structure of the Moral Dilemma in Shiloh." Children's Literature, vol. 27 (1999): pp. 185-197. Excellent analysis of novel by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor.
Oughton, Jerry. Music from a Place Called Half Moon. Publishers Weekly, vol. 242 (17 Apr. 1995): p. 61. Review accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Review Grade: A.
Bridge to Terabithia web site by Walden Media contains film clips and teacher resources for the book and 2007 movie (written by the author's son David Paterson), including background on Paterson and copies of some of her compelling speeches and essays about writing for children. The Disney Bridge to Terabithia web site contains additional film and audio clips, brief behind-the-scenes comments by cast, crew, and Paterson, a game, related downloads, and other resources.
"Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson. Rationale by Kent L. Bryson." National Council of Teachers of English, Anti-Censorship Center. Essay with teaching guidelines and extensive bibliography and list of reviews, including reasons for not banning this novel. "From rationales prepared and donated by students of Margaret T. Sacco, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio."
"Exploring Friendship with Bridge to Terabithia." Study guide at Read Write Think. IRA/NCTE web site.
Hallenbeck, Brent. "Bridge to the Past: Film Stays True to Screenwriter's Young Friend." Burlington [Vermont] Free Press 7 Mar..2007. Article about Katherine and David Paterson and the novel and film Bridge to Terabithia, with a photo of Katherine Paterson.
Kohn, Diana. "Lisa Hill and the Bridge to Terabithia." Takoma-Silver Spring [MD] Voice. Features: Archive. 2005. Article with photos (April 2005) about replacing the tree and plaque at Takoma Park Elementary School, which had been place there in memory of Lisa Hill, the friend of Katherine Paterson's son David.
Scholastic web pages on Bridge to Terabithia include author bio. and study aids.
Sutton, Roger. "An Interview with Katherine Paterson." The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 77 (Nov.-Dec. 2001): pp. 689ff. Full text accessed 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Includes discussion of Paterson's religious background, the writing of Bridge to Terabithia, and other books.
West, Mark I. "Growing Up in the New South as Reflected in Children’s Literature." Includes discussion of Paterson's Come Sing, Jimmy Jo, contributed by Frieda Bostian. The Five Owls, vol. XVII, issue III. Reprinted in The Five Owls web site.
Ransom, Candice. See also Bassman, above.
Call, Nancy. "Ransom, Candice F. Finding Day's Bottom." School Library Journal 52.9 (Sept 2006): 216(1). General OneFile. Gale. "A novel full of insight and truth."
Coats, Karen. "Finding Day's Bottom." The Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books 60.4 (Dec 2006): 186(1).
Enos, Randall. "Ransom, Candice F. Tractor Day." Booklist 103.9-10 (Jan 1, 2007): 116(1).
"Finding Day's Bottom." Publishers Weekly 253.43 (Oct 30, 2006): 62(2). General OneFile. Gale. "Ransom's...moving, meditative story, set in the hills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia, tells of 11-year-old Jane-Ery's struggle to accept her father's death in a sawmill accident."
Janssen, Carolyn. "Ransom, Candice F. Tractor Day." School Library Journal 53.3 (March 2007): 184. Positive short review of "the short and snappy rhyming text.... With so much to capture their attention--both auditory and visual--youngsters will delight in this fresh seasonal story. A great choice for reading aloud or sharing one-on-one."
"Mirrorstone Launches Time Spies series." M2 Best Books (Feb 20, 2007): NA. General OneFile. Gale.
"Phelan, Carolyn. "Ransom, Candice. Finding Day's Bottom." Booklist 103.4 (Oct 15, 2006): 49(1). General OneFile. Gale. "Set in the mountains of Virginia in the 1950s, this affecting first-person novel is an involving story of loss, pain, healing, and family love. Told in Jane-Ery's quiet voice and sometimes-colorful local vocabulary, the narrative is inseparable from its well-realized setting, but the characters and emotions are universal."
"Ransom, Candice: Finding Day's Bottom." (Brief review). Kirkus Reviews 74.17 (Sept 1, 2006): 911(1). General OneFile. Gale.
Rylant: See also Bein, above.
Fein, Esther B. "Awards Announced for Children's Books." The New York Times 26 Jan 1993: pp. B2 (N), C16 (L). (Living Arts Pages). Cynthia Rylant wins the Newbery award for Missing May.
Moser, Barry. "Appalachia: The Front Porch." Horn Book 68 (Jan.- Feb. 1992): 28-30. Boston Globe-Horn Book Award Acceptance. Discusses his Appalachian childhood and other influences on his work. A brief thank-you from author Cynthia Rylant follows on page 31" (summary from Children's Literature Association Quarterly 19, Summer 1994).
Roggenkamp, Karen. "Seeing Inside the Mountains: Cynthia Rylant's Appalachian Literature and the 'Hillbilly' Stereotype. The Lion and the Unicorn, vol. 32 (April 2008): pp. 192-215. Available online through library services such as Project Muse.
Rylant, Cynthia. God Went to Beauty School. Review of 2003 book by Susie Wilde. "Starred Books of Merit." The Five Owls web site.
Smucker, Anna Egan. See AppLit author pages on Anna Egan Smucker.
Still, James. "The Still Life in River of Earth" by Carol Boggess. Appalachian Journal, vol. 30 (Summer 2003). See also James Still's Books for and about Children: Bibliography and Study Guide.
Wells, Rosemary. Mary on Horseback: Three Mountain Stories. See AppLit's Mary on Horseback—Review and Resources.
White, Ruth. See also article by Berrier, above.
White, Ruth. Belle Prater's Boy. The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 72 (Sept.-Oct. 1996): p. 601. Review by Maeve Visser Knoth accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Review Grade: A. Brief, positive review declaring Gypsy the main character and citing White's strengths as a creator of character and a storyteller who evokes emotion.
White, Ruth. Belle Prater's Boy. Publishers Weekly, vol. 243 (11 Mar. 1996): pp. 65ff. Review accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Review Grade: A.
White, Ruth. Belle Prater's Boy. Publishers Weekly, vol. 245 (9 Feb. 1998): p. 26. Review of audiobook read by Alison Elliott accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Review Grade: A
White, Ruth. Little Audrey. Review by Karen Coats. Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, vol. 62 (Nov. 2008): 138-39. Available through library services such as Project Muse.
White, Ruth. Little Audrey. Review by Ilene Cooper. Booklist 105.9-10 (1 Jan 1 2009): 4(1). General OneFile. Gale.
White, Ruth. Little Audrey. Cooper, Ilene. "The Booklist Interview: Ruth White." Booklist 105.9-10 (1 Jan 2009): 72 (1). Available online through library services such as General OneFile. Gale.
White, Ruth. Little Audrey. Review by Pam B. Cole. The ALAN Review 35 (Fall 2008). Available online. "No young adult writer paints a better portrait of life in the Appalachian Mountains than Ruth White.... An extraordinary addition to the literature on life in the Appalachian coal mining communities of the mid-1900s and a must read in social studies."
White, Ruth. Little Audrey. Review by Katie Corrigan. "Book Bits." 24 Dec. 2008. Westwood Public Library Children's Dept., Westwood, MA.
White, Ruth. "Little Audrey by Ruth White: A Family in Postwar Virginia." Review by Jane Stimmen. 24 Oct. 2008. Also "An Interview with Author Ruth White, Author of Little Audrey," by Jane Stimmen. 6 Mar. 2009. World Socialist Web Site.
White, Ruth. Memories of Summer. Review by Elizabeth Poe. The ALAN Review 28 (Fall 2000): p. 29. "This sensitive story, filled with family love, provides glimpses into mental illness, Appalachia, and Northern prejudices. White perceptively portrays the bittersweet memories of a young girl who bravely and honestly handles a difficult situation."
White, Ruth. Memories of Summer. The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 76 (Sept. 2000): p. 584. Full text with book cover accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
White, Ruth. Memories of Summer. The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 77 (May 2001): p. 362. Review by Kristi Beavin of audiobook read by Kate Forbes accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
White, Ruth. Memories of Summer. The New York Times Book Review 11 Feb. 2001: p. 26.
White, Ruth. Memories of Summer. Publishers Weekly, vol. 247 (31 July 2000): p. 96. Full text of short review accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
White Ruth. Tadpole. The Horn Book Magazine, vol. 79 (May-June 2003): p. 358. Review by Christine M. Heppermann accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
White Ruth. Tadpole. Publishers Weekly, vol. 249 (Dec. 23, 2002): pp. 71ff. Positive review accessed online 8/22/03 through Academic Index ASAP.
White Ruth. Tadpole. School Library Journal 50.1 (Jan 2004): 70(1). Positive review by Cheryl Preisendorfer accessed online 1/12/08 through Academic OneFile. Gale.
White, Ruth. Way Down Deep. "Way Down Deep." Review by Rob Reid. Booklinks 18.3 (Jan 2009): 55(1).
White Ruth. Weeping Willow. Publishers Weekly, vol. 239 (18 May 1992): p. 71. Review accessed online 8/23/03 through Academic Index ASAP. Review Grade: A.
Williams, John Alexander. West Virginia: A History for Beginners. Reviewed by Marc Harshman in Appalachian Journal, vol. 21 (Spring 1994): 318-23.
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