Background Resources on Appalachian Folktales and Storytelling 

Compiled by Tina L. Hanlon

General Resources Folklore Archive Materials Journals
Folktale Bibliography Index Sources on One Author, Illustrator, Storyteller, Dramatist or Filmmaker AppLit Home
Resources by AuthorA | B | C | D | E  | F | G | H | I  | J | K | LM | N | O | P -QR | S | T | U-V | W | X Y Z

See also the Folklore section of the AppLit Links and the page on Folktale Collections. Many collections and picture books contain background notes and introductions on oral traditions and storytellers. For additional teaching resources, including some with their own bibliographies, see AppLit's Articles, Study Guides and Lesson Plans sections.

Most items listed here focus on Appalachian folklore, adaptations, and storytelling, but some are more general resources. For others related to children's literature, see ChLA Links to Web Sites on Folklore and Mythology.

Notes by Linnea Hendrickson are copied with permission from her online book Children's Literature: A Guide to the Criticism (G. K. Hall/Macmillan, 1987).

General Resources


Aarne, Antti Amatus. The Types of the Folk-tale: A Classification and Bibliography. Transl. and enl. by Stith Thompson. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1964, 1973. Classifies folktales of the world by tale types.

Accardo, Annalucia. "Divine Right's Trip: A Folk Tale or Postmodern Novel?" Review of Divine Right's Trip by Gurney Norman. Appalachian Journal, vol. 12, Fall 1984.

Adams, Carolyn Hazlett. "Folksong Politics: The Benefits and Costs of Cussedness." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 26:3, Spring 1999, pp. 264-73. Review of Romalis, Shelly. Pistol Packin' Mama: Aunt Molly Jackson and the Politics of Folksong. Urbana, IL: U of Illinois P, 1999. xi, 239 pp.

Adams, George C. S. Review of South From Hell-fer-Sartin': Kentucky Mountain Folk Tales by Leonard Roberts. South Atlantic Bulletin, vol. 21, no. 4, Mar. 1956, p. 10. Available in JSTOR online database.

Adamson, Judy, Andy McLaurin, and Sherilyn Forrester. Carolina Regional Theatre's Appalachian Studies Guide. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Regional Theatre, 1977. "Suggested for use in Grades 9-12 in conjunction with Appalachia Sounding: a dramatic portrait of mountain life, a Carolina Regional Theatre production" by Romulus Linney, adapted by John H. Morrow, Jr. Involves folk music, riddles, Jack tales, and traditional medicine. The play "presents two hundred years of Appalachian culture as lived by a single family." Western Carolina University Mountain Heritage Center. (Video 1976 by University of North Carolina Television Network. 60 min. In Appalachian Magazine, vol. 9, Feb.-Mar. 1976).

Altmann, Anna E. and Gail de Vos. New Tales for Old: Folktales as Literary Fictions for Young Adults. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999. Detailed analyses of eight wonder tales from European oral traditions as they have been adapted in different media: "Cinderella," "The Frog King," "Hansel and Gretel," "Little Red Riding Hood," "Rapunzel," "Rumpelstiltskin," "Sleeping Beauty," and "Snow White." Updated material on these tales appears in the sequel (see below).

Altmann, Anna E. and Gail de Vos. Tales, Then and Now: More Folktales as Literary Fictions for Young Adults. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001. Review by Victoria G. Dworkin in Marvels & Tales, vol. 17, Oct. 2003, pp. 280+. Dworkin describes both books as "providing a synopsis; an analysis of each tale's tale-type and motif elements according to the Aarne-Thompson indexes; a brief overview of the tale's literary history, with references to its place within oral tradition; and then a detailed annotated listing of selected scholarly critical interpretations of the tale arranged chronologically, followed by annotations of literary reworkings of each tale in novel, short story, film and stage play, poetry (which includes selected music recordings), picture book, and graphic novel form, as well as references to Internet resources and suggestions for classroom use." This book focuses on tales that have mainly literary origins: "Beauty and the Beast," "Jack the Giant Killer" and "Jack and the Bean Stalk" (both are AT 328, Boy Steals Giant's Treasure), two ballads—"Tam Lin" and "Thomas the Rhymer," and five stories from Hans Christian Andersen, with an appendix on literary reworkings of tales not discussed in the two books. "Altmann and de Vos cite Carl Lindahl's argument that 'Jack has been part of the folklore research landscape of the English-language speaking world as far back as one can research. However, this Jack was a character often off limits to women and children because of the scatological and obscene references within the tales. Only when the editors decided to market the tale to children were these "undesirable" elements eliminated from the printed tales' (53). There are references (Lindahl, the Opies, Tatar) to the 'moral' revisions made in Benjamin Tabart's The History of Jack and the Bean-Stalk (1807) and subsequent retellings. Even today, the story invites commentary from both critics and revisionist authors on the moralities of the basic plot, the fact that Jack is essentially a thief who steals the giant's treasures in response to his wife's hospitality."

Alumni Spotlight. The Ferrum College Bulletin, Spring 1981, p. 11. Article with photo on Raymond H. Sloan '29, "an award-winning musician and noted historian," a native of Ferrum, VA living in Roanoke, who collected folklore during the WPA Federal Writers' Project. Tales passed down through his family appeared in a variety of publications. He recently published stories of Franklin County and the Blue Ridge Mountains in Uncle Esom's Grist Mill. The Library of Congress had recorded several folk songs by Sloan and the Ferrum String Band. [See "Jack and his Lump of Silver" in this web site.]

Alvey, R. Gerald. Kentucky Folklore. Lexington: Univ. Press of KY, 1989. New Books for New Readers series. A 60-page book that introduces the concept of culture, folk speech, and different kinds of folklore, such as songs, tales, riddles, proverbs, rhymes, and customs. Brief examples of types of folklore are given.

American Folklife Center, Library of Congress. A Teacher's Guide to Folklife Resources for K-12 Classrooms. Prepared by Peter Bartis and Paddy Bowman, 1994. Publications of the American Folklife Center, no. 19.

American Folklife Resources. The Internet Public Library's pathfinder guide for students and teachers doing research on American folklife, created by John Cicala.

American Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Jan Harold Brunvand. New York: Garland, 1996. Includes entries on Jack tales, Richard Chase, etc.

Anderson, Evy Herr. "The Spell of the Storyteller: The Magic of the Oral Tradition is Being Captured—in Books and on Tapes." Publishers Weekly, vol. 240, 15 Feb. 1993, pp. 28+. Includes related article on the National Association for the Preservation and Perpetuation of Storytelling. "Brief Summary: The ancient art of storytelling is in the midst of a revival as storytellers are receiving increased recognition and encouragement from many segments of society. The stories are also finding their way into books and onto tapes. A survey of current books and tapes that feature stories is presented."

Anderson-Green, Paula Hathaway. "Folktales in the Literary Work of Harden E. Taliaferro: A View of Southern Appalachian Life in the Early Nineteenth Century." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 31, Fall-Winter 1983, pp. 65-75. Taliaferro's Fisher's River (1859) praises the oral tradition of his native Surrey County, NC. In his comic novel, Taliaferro as first-person narrator introduces storytellers who tell tales in the course of their everyday lives as farmers, millers, hunters. Over a dozen hunting yarns are told, including "The Ride in the Peach-Tree." Uncle Davy, one of the characters, maintains the pose of insisting the story happened to him, although it is a well-known tale type in oral tradition. Larkin Snow does the same in "The Story of the Eels," which contains the motif of catching fish by incredible tricks. Taliaferro's "double-narrator" technique creates close acquaintance and sympathy for the characters rather than more distance as in other Southwestern humorists' work. The only black narrator in the book, Charles Gentry, gives a sermon, "The Origin of the Whites," that reverses the Cain-Abel story and racist legends about origins of the races: "God put a 'white mark' on Cain as his symbol of sin....Taliaferro was a Baptist preacher, and ...he, too, was 'willing to run up against established views'" (p. 74). See also article by Cratis Williams, below, and others on this page about Taliaferro.

Anglin, Mark K. "A Question of Loyalty: National and Regional Identity in Narratives of Appalachia." Anthropological Quarterly 65:3, 1992 July, pp. 105-16.

Appalachian Cultural Museum, Appalachian State Univ. Index of Music/Stories Education Programs. Descriptions of available educational programs that may be booked at the museum.

Appalachian Riddles - bibliography and examples at this link, including riddles in folktales and "The Riddle Song."

Appalachian Storytelling Event. Appalachian Studies Program. Virginia Tech, 2013. Organized by Robin Kaufman and Anita Puckett. On June 24, 2013, children made quilt squares and recorded their own audio stories or responses to Jack Tales after seeing Rex Stephenson and Emily Blankenship-Tucker tell stories (photos of storytellers at this link). Some of the children added another animal into "Jack and the Robbers," such as an owl that is stuck in its nest and then after Jack helps it out, the owl helps Jack scare the robbers. One child imagined Jack living in the robber's house and another mansion until he was 111 years old! This site includes review of the day's activities with tales and quilts, reading list, and links.

Appalachian Studies Bibliography Cumulation 1994-2010. West Virginia University Libraries. Long bibliography available as searchable pdf file.

Appalachian Studies Timeline. Appalachian Studies Association. Begins in 1900 with events and context. Includes some literary and storytelling landmarks.

Asbury, Jo Ann. "The Changing Image of Appalachian Children's Literature." Paper presented at the Annual Appalachian Studies Conference. Morgantown, WV: March 17-19, 1995. ERIC Document Number ED 385413. 12 pp.

Atkinson, David. "Resources in the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library: The Maud Karpeles Manuscript Collection." Folk Music Journal, vol. 8:1, 2001, pp. 90-101.


Bacchilega, Cristina. "American Folktales from the Collections of the Library of Congress (review)." Marvels & Tales, vol. 20, 2006, pp. 105-107. See Lindahl, below, for the volume being reviewed in this article.

Baird, Zahra M. and Carol Katz. "Great Tales to Tell: Selecting Winners for the Anne Izard Storytellers' Choice Awards." School Library Journal, vol. 4, Sept. 2003, pp. 48+. Full text accessed through Academic Index ASAP 1/17/04. Since 1992, this award has been given to excellent books useful for storytellers. Documentation of sources is required in all award winners, which are described at Appalachian winners through 2002: The Jack Tales by Ray Hicks, Sobol's The Storytellers' Journey (see Sobol below), How Rabbit Tricked Otter and Other Cherokee Trickster Tales by Gayle Ross (1997), Jack Always Seeks His Fortune by Donald Davis, Listening for the Crack of Dawn by Donald Davis), Best-Loved Stories Told at the National Storytelling Festival (pub. 1991).

Banes, Ruth A. "Mythology in Music: The Ballad of Loretta Lynn." Canadian Review of American Studies/Revue Canadienne d'Etudes Americaines, vol. 16:3, Fall 1985, pp. 283-300.

Barden, John H. 'Postle Jack Tales: Gospel Images in New Appalachian Folk Tales. Thesis (D. Min. in Preaching). McCormick Theological Seminary, 2000.

Barden, Thomas E. "A Race with a Panther: The WPA Collection of Virginia Folk Legends." VC, 41, Winter 199, pp. 100-111. The Virginia legends collected "between mid-1937 and mid-1942," despite adverse factors in the collecting process, represent "the most extensive folklore fieldwork ever done in Virginia"; they "are all the folk equivalent of literature in that they create imaginative order and significance out of people's lives." Prints some of the stories. For another chapter on this topic by Barden published in 2015, see Kevin Hayes, below.

Baringer, Sandra K. "Brer Rabbit and His Cherokee Cousin: Moving Beyond Appropriation." Trickster Lives: Culture and Myth in American Fiction. Ed. Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Athens: U of GA Press, 2001. pp. 26-52. Scholarly analysis of animal tricksters, especially those from African and Cherokee traditions.

Barosin, Vera Counts. "Recollections of Grandfather Elijah Rasnick." Historical Sketches of  Southwest Virginia. Publication 12-1978. The Historical Society of Southwest Virginia, publication 12, 1978, pp. 17-20.1857-1943. Rpt. Barosin describes her grandfather's talent at telling stories passed down from the British ancestors. She quotes Chase describing Rasnick's creation of the giant's and heroine's voices in telling "Mutsmag." She also mentions his skill at scaring the children with "Chunk o' Meat" and laughing at "Jack and the Robbers."

Baughman, Ernest W. Type and Motif Index of the Folktales of England and North America. Indiana Folklore Series, no. 20. The Hague: Mouton, 1966.

Berk, Ari. "Where the White Stag Runs: Boundary and Transformation in Deer Myths, Legends, and Songs." Journal of Mythic Arts. Autumn 2003. Published online by The Endicott Studio. Includes overview of North American deer myths, including Cherokee "Little Deer." With beautiful illustrations by several artists. See also essay by Carolyn Dunn in this issue, listed below.

Berkley, June Langford. "Telling the Untold Stories," pp. 232-50. In Engelhardt, Elizabeth S. D. (ed.); and Ewen, Lynda Ann (preface). Beyond Hill and Hollow: Original Readings in Appalachian Women's Studies. Athens, OH: Ohio UP, 2005. xv, 260 pp.

Blatt, Gloria T., ed. Once Upon a Folktale: Capturing the Folklore Process with Children. New York: Teachers College Pr/Columbia U Pr, 1993.

Boatright, Mody C. Review of Up Cutshin and Down Greasy by Leonard Roberts. The Journal of Southern History, vol. 26, no. 2, May 1960, p. 265.

Boggs, Ralph S. "North Carolina White Folktales and Riddles." Journal of American Folklore, vol. 47, 1934, pp. 289-328.

Bosma, Bette. Fairy Tales, Fables, Legends, and Myths: Using Folk Literature in Your Classroom. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Pr/Columbia U Pr, 1992.

Boyd, Donald C. "The Book Women of Kentucky: The WPA Pack Horse Library Project, 1936-1943." Libraries & the Cultural Record, vol. 42, 2007, pp. 111-128. Available online through library services such as Project Muse.

Bronner, S. "Story-telling." The Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill, 1989, pp. 488-92.

Brown, Doris. "Using Jack Tales in a Second Grade Class." Hands On, Fall 1987, no. 30, pp. 20-27. ERIC Clearinghouse: RC507172. ERIC Abstract: "Describes a project in which Kentucky second grades developed puppet shows and photography activities based on traditional Appalachian oral tales. Discusses student progress in language arts skills, creativity, use of audiovisual equipment, and group cooperation."

Brown, Jody and R. Rex Stephenson. "The Folk Tales of the Eastern Blue Ridge." Blue Ridge Folklife Festival. Blue Ridge Institute. Ferrum College, 22 Oct. 1983. pp. 7-8.  This essay includes background on regional storytelling, with mention of folk collectors Cecil Sharp and Richard Chase, and discussion of tales such as "Jack and the Bean Tree" and "Jack and the Hidden Valley" (collected by Leonard Roberts in South from Hell-fer-Sartin). It discusses Raymond Sloan's telling in 1980 of the only Jack tale collected in Franklin County, "Jack and his Lump of Silver," and other tales Sloan heard from his father and collected for the WPA. "Early's Light" is a local legend about Jubal Early's brother's ghost and his widow. The discussion of the cultural and educational significance of the folktale ends with this statement that was often used in publicity materials of the Jack Tale Players: “Far from being minor amusements, folk tales put us in touch with the values of people. They affirm the creativity of people and show the power of stories in transmitting cultural principles.” Includes one photo of Raymond Sloan and one from VA State Library of Richard Chase earlier in his life reading a story with children. This program of the Blue Ridge Folklife Festival contains essays about the Blue Ridge Institute and a number of other folklore topics. The storytelling essay was reprinted in Blue Ridge Parkway: Agent of Transition. Eds. Barry Buxton and Steven M. Beatty. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1986. pp. 167-72.

Browne, Ray B. Review of Up Cutshin and Down Greasy: Folklore of a Kentucky Mountain Family." Midwest Folklore, vol. 10.1, 1960, pp. 49-50. Available in JSTOR online database.

Brown-Hudson Folklore Awards. Information on the awards established 1970 by the NC Folklore Society, with list of recipients.

Buck, Pat. "Playing the Past." Now and Then, vol. 6:3, Fall 1989 Fall, pp. 26-29. Illus. Discusses folk rituals and folk drama.

Buffalohead, Priscilla, Grandmother Spider's Web Series. Illus. Robert DesJarlait. 1991. Four workbooks for secondary level with a teacher guide, student readings, student activities and bibliography. Developed for the American Indian Language and Culture Education Program, Anoka-Hennepin School District, Minnesota State Department of Education. B/w illustrations by a Red Lake Ojibwe artist. The 4 volumes are:

Burnham, Linda Frye. "Reaching for the Valley of the Sun: The American Festival Project's Untold Stories." TDR: The Drama Review, vol. 44, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 75-112. Available online through library services such as Project Muse. Includes discussion of Roadside Theater and "Roadside's long-time partner from Zuni, New Mexico, Idiwanan An Chawe...Idiwanan An Chawe performed several times throughout the festival with Roadside Theater in their collaborative play Corn Mountain/Pine Mountain: Following the Seasons, about the commonalities of the cultures in Zuni and Appalachia." Roadside's methods of using the story circle were included in this festival and discussed in the article. Performers from Junebug Productions in New Orleans "performed with Roadside Theater in their collaborative musical-theatre work Junebug/Jack, created over the past 10 years with the hope of sharing each other's audiences--one predominantly white, the other predominantly black--both economically hard-pressed. The play features two culturally significant characters: 'Jack,' an archetypal Appalachian hero, and 'Junebug' a mythic African American folk character invented by people from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee during the 1960s to represent the collective wisdom of struggling black people. Both Junebug and Jack represent 'the triumph of wit over power, of the human spirit over oppression' (Arizona State University Public Events, 1999 Untold Stories Festival Program Book)." See also book by Cocke, Dudley, below.

Burns, Paul C. "Tennessee's Teller of Tall Tales—William O. Steele." Elementary English, vol. 38, December 1961, pp. 545-48. Concentrates on Steele's tall tales rather than on his historical fiction (note by Linnea Hendrickson).

Burrison, John A., ed. Storytellers: Folktales and Legends from the South. Athens, GA: U of GA Pr, 1989.

Burton, Tom. "The Lion's Share: Scottish Ballads in Southern Appalachia." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, vol. 58:3, 1997, pp. 95-101.

Burton, Thomas; and Ambrose Manning. "A Checklist of Child Ballad Variants Found in Southern Appalachia." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, vol. 58:3, 1997, pp. 102-16.

Bush, Betty J., et al. "Stimulating Children to Read and Write through Jack Tales." Reading Teacher, vol. 45, Mar. 1992, pp. 554-55. ERIC Clearinghouse: CS743133. Short article about intermediate-grade students studying the basic plot and traditional motifs in "'Jack and the Beanstalk," then writing their own tales set in different cultures they research. Several excerpts are given from the beginning and end of student tales such as "Pedro and the Cocoa Tree."

Byers, Judy P. "Folk Literature as Examples of Fantasy in Central Appalachia: An Annotated Bibliography." Journey Through Fantasy Literature: A Resource Guide for Teachers. Vol. II. Ed. Roberta T. Herrin and Sarah K. Davis. Johnson City, TN: East TN State Univ., 1992, pp. 147-51.

Byers, Judy Prozzilla. "Storytelling in Appalachia." In The Appalachians: America’s First and Last Frontier. Eds. Mari-Lynn Evans, Holly George-Warren, and Robert Santelli. New York: Random House, 2004. 255 pp. Profusely illustrated historical portrait in 30 chapters, companion volume to three-hour PBS documentary. Byers' chapter is a survey of Appalachian storytelling with some emphasis on Richard Chase, Leonard Roberts, and Ruth Ann Musick, as well as scratchboard illustrations from the Musick archives and copy of some stories. The book's last section, "Memories: Keeping the Spirit in the Modern World," contains stories by a variety of writers, including Gary Carden, Lee Smith, and Shelby Lee Adams.

Byrd, Fay. Peggy Osborne [Interview]. DVD. Wilkesboro, NC: Wilkes Community College, 2008. c. 60 minutes. "Mrs. Osborne discusses life experiences, using Native American medical practices to treat diabetes, research on Native American psychology and traditions, history of the Cherokee Indians, healing with herbs, and the tradition of telling Indian stories" (Worldcat).

Byrne, Pat. Folklore and Literature: A Selected Bibliography. In Fairy Tales web site, English Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Cameron, Kenneth Walter. West Virginia University Sixty Years Ago: Memories of Louis Watson Chappell: Folklorist of Appalachia and the Albermarle. Hartford: Transcendental, 1989. 14 pp. Illus.

Carroll-McQuillan, Synia. "Folktales—the Mirror of Humanity."  Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Vol. II, 1993. Curriculum Unit 93.02.02. Online at (23 Jan. 1998). Focuses on African and African-Amercian tales. "This [six-week] unit is directed towards a middle school population; however, with some adjustments it could be made suitable for older or younger children. Many folktales are intergenerational and listeners of all ages take what they want and need from them."

Carson, Jo. Teller Tales. Athens: Swallow Press/Ohio Univ. Press, 2007. "'All my work fits in my mouth,' Jo Carson says. 'I write performance material no matter what else the pieces get called, and whether they are for my voice or other characters’ voices … they are first to be spoken aloud.' Following an oral tradition that has strong roots in her native Tennessee, the author of Teller Tales invites the reader to participate in events in a way that no conventional history book can. Both stories in this book are set in East Tennessee in the mid-eighteenth century and share certain characters. The first narrative, 'What Sweet Lips Can Do,' recounts the story of the Overmountain Men and the battle of King’s Mountain, a tide-turning battle in the American Revolution. 'Men of Their Time' is an exploration of white-Cherokee relationships from early contact through the time of the Revolution."

Carter, Isobel Gordon. "Mountain White Folk-Lore: Tales from the Southern Blue Ridge." Journal of American Folklore, vol. 38, 1925, pp. 340-74. A landmark article containing Jack tales Carter recorded in 1923 from Jane Hicks Gentry (1863-1925). Carter comments on the decline of storytelling among mountain families who used to know them better, although they had not been recorded as ballads had been. See Folktale Collections Indexed in AppLit. Full text available online through library services such as JSTOR.

Chaney, Candace. "Gurney Norman's New Book Combines Folk Myth and Satire to Make Point." Lexington [KY] Herald-Leader, 10 Feb. 2013. Article with photo of Norman and interview, reviewing Ancient Creek.

Charlton, Ann Carper. The Implementation of Appalachian Folklore for a Secondary Curriculum. Hollins College Thesis. Roanoke, VA: Hollins College, 1986. 26 pp.

Chase, Richard (1904-88). See AppLit's Richard Chase Bibliography. Items by Chase or focused solely on Chase's work are no longer added to this page after 5/30/03. There are many background notes and commentaries on folklore in Chase's books, recordings, and archived materials. It is also likely that almost any resource discussing or reprinting American Jack tales will mention Chase (who is not the same as the American literary critic Richard Volney Chase, 1914-62). See also article by Tina L. Hanlon in this web site, "Vital Words and Actions in the Work of May Justus and Richard Chase."

Cherokees. Now and Then, vol. 3 (Autumn 1986). Issue on Cherokee Indians in Appalachia, with poetry, articles, fiction, book reviews, and photos. Edited by Pat Arnow, and Mary Chiltoskey. East Tennessee State Univ: Center for Appalachian Studies and Services. Articles: "The Story of My Life as Far Back as I Remember" by Aggie Ross Lossiah and edited by Joan Greene; "Goingback Chiltoskey, Master Carver," by Joan Greene; "Daughter of Tahlequah," a profile of storyteller Gayle Ross by Jill Oxendine; "Maggie Axe Wachacha: Beloved Woman of the Cherokees," by Patricia A. Swan; "Saving the Then for Now," by Pat Arnow; "Cherokee Eden (with Asides): An Alternative to the Apple," by Marilou Awiakta; "Marilou Awiakta: Eye of the Deer," by Parks Lanier; and "Fears and Challenges," by Robert Youngdeer. Short stories include "Brownies: A Cherokee Legend," by Ruth Ledford; and "The Tsali Legend," by John Parris.

The Cherokees for Educators. Internet School Library Media Center, with bibliographies and links to many resources. The Arts & Literature section of the page leads to Cherokee storytelling resources and online tales.

Childers, Russ. Traditional Appalachian Music and Stories. Web site by a native of Eastern KY living in Ohio, a musician and storyteller, with Appalachian booklists, information on a 1983 Off-Broadway show on Appalachian traditions (Close Harmonies), student activities on traditional instruments and stories, teacher resources, Appalachian links.

Children's Folklore Review. Children's Folklore Section of the American Folklore Society.

"Children's Folklore Section 2008 Annual Meeting 2008: 2008 Aesop Prize." Chldren's Folklore Review, vol. 31, 2008-9, pp. 87-88. Describes Scott Reynolds Nelson and Marc Aronson's "outstanding" book Ain't Nothing But a Man: My Search to Find the Read John Henry, as a "meticulously documented historiography" that provides many insights on folklore research and being a historian. "Aesop Accolades," pp. 88-89: Description of Anne Shelby's award-winning book The Adventures of Molly Whuppie and Other Appalachian Folktales praises her use of language and careful explanation of her use of sources and modernization of traditional tales. Available as pdf file.

Cocke, Dudley. "Art in a Democracy." TDR: The Drama Review, vol. 48, Fall 2004, pp. 165-173. Available online through library services such as Project Muse. Includes discussion of "Corn Mountain/Pine Mountain" (see entry below) and other Roadside Theater projects directed by Dudley Cocke.

Cocke, Dudley and Edward Wemytewa, eds. Journeys Home: Revealing a Zuni-Appalachia Collaboration. Auni, NM: Zuni A:shiwi Publishing, 2002. Foreword by Gregory Cajete. From the Publisher: "The story of the sixteen-year collaboration between artists from two of the United States' most traditional cultures, and the bilingual play they made together." Kentucky's Roadside Theater collaborated with Zuni Pueblo's Idiwanan An Chawe (Children of the Middle Place), the first Zuni language theater, in western New Mexico. Their play, "Corn Mountain/Pine Mountain: Following the Seasons," which toured nationally, is included in the book. It combines "traditional and original stories, oral histories, humor, music, and dance to celebrate and comment upon two agricultural ways of life that once provided physical and spiritual sustenance for people in Zuni and Appalachia. . . . The Zuni writing in Journeys Home is the most inclusive example of written Zuni extant, and the book, with the accompanying CD, will become a primary text for teaching written Zuni." The play includes a tale called "Jack and the Animals/Jack dap Swa'hol Wowe." Historical background on Appalachia and an essay by Tony Earley on Appalachian dialect are also included.

Coffin, Tristram P. "Harden E. Taliaferro and the Use of Folklore by American Literary Figures." South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 64.2, 1965, pp. 241-246. See also articles by Paula Hathaway and Cratis Williams, below, on folktales in Taliaferro's fiction, and book by Inge.

Collection of the Limberjack., 1976. Archival material. Zane State College, Zanesville, Ohio, and Ohio University Library. "The collection of The Limberjack spans from 1976 to 1979 and includes issues of this Appalachian Studies publication of folktales, instructional reports, book reviews and interviews written by students."

Community Arts Network. CAN "promotes information exchange, research and critical dialogue within the field of community-based arts, that is, art made as a voice and a force within a specific community of place, spirit or tradition. CAN was initiated in 1999 through a partnership between Art in the Public Interest, a national nonprofit organization, and The Virginia Tech Department of Theatre Arts' Consortium for the Study of Theatre and Community." Web site includes articles and other items on folklore, storytelling, and other arts in Appalachia and worldwide.

Conley, Robert J. "Backtracking from Oklahoma to North Carolina: An Interview with Robert J. Conley. Appalachian Journal, vol. 28, Spring 2001, pp. 326-44. "An author of historical fiction about the Cherokee Indians discusses how stories told by his Cherokee grandmother were woven into his books, differences between Cherokee reservation life in Oklahoma and North Carolina, the Cherokee education system, the writing system that Sequoyah developed, and the 'ugly realities' of being a full-time writer" (ERIC).

Copeland, Brenda S., and Patricia A. Messner. Using Picture Books to Teach Language Arts Standards in Grades 3-5. Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. Includes some Appalachian folktale and realistic picture books: Sody Sallyratus, Look Out, Jack! The Giant is Back!, Silver Packages, The Rag Coat, My Great-Aunt Arizona. "It features reproducible worksheets, writing activities, related reading based activities, and technology for grades three through five. The ideas have been tested in the authors' libraries and are linked to national curricular standards. Though school librarians are targeted as the main audience for this book, it also is a valuable resource for the classroom teacher and reading specialist" (product description).

Corrigan Samuel W. Review of Sang Branch Settlers: Folksongs and Tales of a Kentucky Mountain Family by Leonard Roberts. American Anthropologist, vol. 78, no. 1, Mar. 1976, pp. 161-62.

Cox, John Harrington. "Negro Tales from West Virginia." Journal of American Folklore, vol. 47, 1934.

Crabbe, Katharyn F. "Folk Over Fakelore—but Is It Art?" School Library Journal, vol. 26, November 1979, pp. 42-43. Maintains that "most of the highly structured folktales for children are really fakelore" (note by Linnea Hendrickson).

Crandall, David. "Jack and the Signifying Machines." Appalachian Heritage, vol. 28, Winter 2000, pp. 29-41. Theoretical consideration of tranmission and influence of Jack tales through modern culture. Available online as pdf.

The Cratis Williams Symposium Proceedings: A Memorial and Examination of the State of Regional Studies in Appalachia. Ed. Barry M. Buxton, et al. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium, 1989.

Crockett, Davy. See references on Davy Crockett page, with both historical/biographical and folklore materials.

Cruikshank, Wendy. "Gigantic Learning with Giants." Lesson plan on giants in fairy tales, by a teacher in Calgary, Alberta. Scholastic web site. Reprinted from Instructor magazine, Jan. 2003. Recommends a variety of tales with giants, including Jack Outwits the Giant by Paul Brett Johnson. Includes a variety of activities focusing on setting, rhymes, language, numbers, reader's theater, etc.


Datlow, Ellen and Terri Windling, eds. The Coyote Road: Trickster Tales. Illus. Charles Vess. New York: Viking, 2007. Contemporary literary fairy tales. The Preface mentions Jack in Appalachian tales as an example of Trickster as "a larger-than-life human being" (p. 2). The Introduction by Terri Windling gives a good overview of trickster characters in world folklore. It discusses rabbits and hares as tricksters all over the world. "African hare stories traveled to North America on the slavers' ships, where they mixed with Native American tales (such as rabbit stories of the Cherokee), evolving into the famous 'Br'er Rabbit' tales of African-American lore" (p. 16). Of the human "'wise fools' and 'clever simpletons' who make their way through life with a combination of wit, naivety, and luck [t]he 'Jack' tales of Great Britain and the Appalachian Mountains . . . feature a peasant hero who uses his craftiness to triumph over men and women of the higher classes. The high are brought low, the low are raised high, the social conventions are turned upside down. The little guy wins—not because he's virtuous, but because he's clever and sneaky" (p. 19).

Davenport, Tom. See AppLit's Bibliography of Davenport Fairy Tale Films and Davenport Films web site, for information on live-action film adaptations of folktales and documentaries on Appalachian life.

Davis, Charles Thomas III. "Jack as Archetypal Hero." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 26, 1978, pp. 134-43. In special issue on Jack tales. Based primarily on Chase's and Ray Hicks' Jack tales, discusses Jack as "a changing, dynamic hero. . . a typical Märchen hero" (134). The forest, an underworld setting, full of monsters, takes us into chaos and the unconscious, back to our beginning, where creation and morality are possible, where the miraculous is ordinary. Jack is the abused, youngest child who finds the just recognition denied him earlier. He is in the dark, in winter (in "Jack and the Northwest Wind"), a heavenly demonic world (up beanstalk, etc.), in the realm of the Jungian shadow archetype, from the personal to the collective unconscious, where the individual will be destroyed or made new. He faces chaotic opponents such as witches that are demonic mother images or anima, from whom he must rescue his feminine identity. King Marock is one of the animus figures—"an embodiment of the woman's rejected masculinity" (136), as are other fathers who try to keep their daughters from Jack. Chase's Fire Dragaman has a blue beard, the dragon luring women "into the realm of death" (136-37). Dragons and King Marock are bisexual, anima projection for Jack and animus for the girls. Dragaman and giants make the newground a wilderness, as the witch destroys the mill in "Sop Doll" and wild animals make king's land a wilderness in "Jack and the Varmints." Jack integrates "man's rejected animal instinct" in "Jack and the Robbers," reclaims wilderness from robbers. Mankind's psychological archetypal shadow and cosmological mastery of chaotic monsters are combined, linking Self with nature, Psyche with both outer and inner world. Guardian figures who help Jack are young woman, animal, or wise old man, combining different dimensions of the gigantic or omnipresent self embracing or containing the cosmos. Jack is a small, weak, impotent being, archetype of the child savior, "the preconscious, instinctual-animal impulses in the human personality" (139). The märchen hero brings light from dark, order from disorder, masters sponteneity and has "integrated his powers into a pattern of power and success which undergirds the elements of future and promise" (139). When Jack's stories are most clearly märchen, his success is cosmic and social, not individual. Jack's magical objects and helpers are extensions of himself, must be used wisely. In other tales, he doesn't need help to succeed.

Davis, Donald. "Inside the Oral Medium." The National Storytelling Journal, vol. 1, no. 3, Summer 1984.

Davis, Donald. Telling your Own Stories: For Family and Classroom Storytelling, Public Speaking and Personal Journaling. Little Rock: August House, 1993.

Davis, Hubert J. 'Pon My Honor Hit's the Truth: Tall Tales from the Mountains. Murfreesboro: Johnson Pubs., 1973.

Dean, Rebecca Kay. "I'll Meet You in the Air: A Cultural Study of Appalachian Pentecostal Radio Preaching." Univ. of Pittsburg diss. 1998. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 59:6 (1998 Dec), 2071.

de Caro, Frank A. "American Tales and Legends: An Introduction." An Anthology of American Folktales and Legends. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2009. pp. xix-xlii. The Introduction has an overview of the history of Appalachian folktale collections and interpretations of Jack tales (as well as Native American and African American tales), crediting Isobel Gordon Carter (1925), with publishing the first significant American collection. The anthology contains 266 tales and legends of varied types, including a number of Appalachian tales. One section is devoted to "Brave, Resourceful, and Kindly Women," and another is "Jack and his Fellows: Classic Hero Tales."

Denton, J., and J. Seay. "Wicked Witches of North Carolina." Esquire, Oct. 1976, pp. 116-17.

De Vos, Gail. Stories from Songs: Ballads As Literary Fictions for Young Adults. Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited, 2008. "Ballad types covered include: tragic love stories, murder ballads, otherworld beings, tricks and disguises, and ballads from other cultures. Oral origins and history, critical interpretations, re-workings, and current recordings are included for each ballad; along with a list of resources."

Dundes, Alan, ed. Analytic Essays in Folklore. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. Dundes' essay "Metafolklore and Oral Literary Criticism" (pp. 50-58) influenced Cheryl Oxford's 1987 dissertation on Wautaga County, NC Jack Tales. "Dundes urges collectors to be sensitive to 'metafolklore,' a group's lore about their own folk traditions, and to elicit a 'folk exegesis' of the verbal art being recorded." Oxford thus chose to "include biographical information" on Marshall Ward and Ray and Stanley Hicks, "as well as their oral literary criticism regarding the Jack Tales" (diss. p. 13).

Dundes, Alan, ed. Mother Wit from the Laughing Barrel: Readings in the Interpretation of Afro-American Folklore. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Essays include "The Steel Drivin' Man" by Leon R. Harris and "The Career of 'John Henry'" by Richard M. Dorson. Also essays by Zora Neale Hurston, including "High John de Conquer" (most of her folklore is from farther south than Appalachia), "Superstitions and Folklore of the South" by Charles W. Chesnutt, and essays on the relationship between Native American and African American folktales. The book has many interesting essays but no index.

Dundes, Alan, ed. "Texture, Text, and Context." Southern Folklore Quarterly, vol. 28, 1964, pp. 251-65. "Dundes' triple emphasis upon texture, text, and context" was a major influence on Cheryl Oxford's 1987 dissertation on Wautaga County, NC Jack Tales (diss. pp. 12-13).

Dunn, Carolyn. "Deer Woman And the Living Myth of the Dreamtime." Journal of Mythic Arts, Autumn 2003. Published online by The Endicott Studio. Analysis of deer woman myths by a California writer who is part Cherokee includes discussion of Cherokee and other traditions. With lines from poem “Deer Dancer” by Joy Harjo and beautiful illustrations by several artists. Also "Charm Song for Hunting a Deer," poem by Dunn. See also article by Ari Berk, listed above, and art exhibit in this issue, "Shape-Shifters: Art Inspired by Animal-Human Transformation Myths," including art by SW VA artist Charles Vess.


Edwards, Grace Toney. Review of May the Devil Walk Behind Ye! Scottish Traveller Tales by Duncan Williamson and Outwitting the Devil: Jack Tales from Wise County, Virginia edited by Charles Purdue. Now & Then, vol. 9, Summer 1992.  In issue devoted to The Scottish-Appalachian Connection.

Edwards, Grace Toney. "Wonder Tales in Appalachia." Full text in AppLit, reprinted from Journey Through Fantasy Literature:  A Resource Guide for Teachers. Vol. I.  Ed. Roberta T. Herrin. Johnson City, TN: East TN State Univ., 1992.

Edwards, Grace Toney, JoAnn Aust Asbury, and Ricky L. Cox, ed. A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region. Knoxville, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2006. Excellent introduction to regional studies by a variety of scholars, including "Appalachian Folklore" by Deborah Thompson and Irene Moser, and a section by Roberta Herrin on children's literature.

Elingburg, Sandra. "Mountain Breed: Western North Carolina Tales." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 34, Winter-Spring 1987, pp. 52-60. 1985 W. Amos Abrams Prize Co-Winner. Discussion of local stories told by the author's family and neighbors and the way they "appeared to observors as a reflection of the ancient, weathered mountains that surround them" (p. 52).

Ellis, Anne. "The Art of Community Conversation." Theatre Topics, vol. 10, no. 2, Sept. 2000, pp. 91-100. Available online through library services such as Project Muse. Article on Roadside Theater touches on use of material from oral traditions, including collaborative play Junebug/Jack (see article by Burnham, above) and use of community feedback by storytellers.

Ellis, Bill. Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religion and the Media. Lexington, Univ. of KY Press, 2000. Includes study of satanic folklore. By a folklorist, native of Roanoke, VA.

Ellis, Bill. "Why is a Lucky Rabbit's Foot Lucky? Body Parts as Fetishes." Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 39, Jan-April 2002, pp. 51ff (36 pp.). Available online through library services such as Academic Index ASAP. Includes discussion of Jack tales by Maud Long, Richard Chase, and others, in which paws and hands are cut off, such as "Jack and the Sop Doll." Ellis argues that the rabbit's foot superstition links to a complex body of Anglo and African American folk beliefs related to social power struggles. "Possessing a fetish that embodies the essence of a dangerous Other—whether trickster, badman, or witch—and using it for one's own purposes effectively neutralizes the threat represented by that Other."

Ellis, Elizabeth, and Loren Niemi, Loren. Inviting the Wolf in: Thinking About the Difficult Story. Little Rock, Ark: August House, 2001. A book on symbolism and psychoanalysis in storytelling. Ellis, a native of the Kentucky mountains, is a popular storyteller at the National Storytelling Festival.

Encyclopedia of Appalachia. Ed. Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2006. Entries are arranged alphabetically within each section, such as Cultural Traditions: Folklore and Folklife, Cultural Traditions: Humor, Cultural Traditions: Language, Cultural Traditions: Literature.  Entries by 1000 contributors. Contents overview, sample entries and background at encyclopedia web site. AP article on publication of the book by Duncan Mansfield, "Reference Book Tackles 'Hillbilly' Stereotype: Work Chronicles Facts on Appalachia," Louisville [KY] Courier-Journal 6 Mar. 2006. Similar article "Encyclopedia of Appalachia Offers Realistic Picture of Region" in Kingsport [Tenn.] Times-News 9 Mar. 2006. ETSU news report 3 Mar. 2006. Article by  Bob Batz Jr., "Encyclopedia Opens Window on Appalachia," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 14 Mar. 2006.

Ensor, Wanda. "Tales of the Supernatural Collected in Mitchell and Yancey Counties, North Carolina." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, vol. 38, 1972, pp. 61-71.


Fauster, Ted. Fauster's Supernatural Survival Guide: For the Appalachian Region. Parsons, WV: McClain Printing, 1997. 92 pp. This book appears to describe mythical creatures created by Fauster, and does not indicate to what extent it may be based on older folklore. See more at Folklore Themes in Longer Appalachian Fiction.

Fine, Elizabeth C. "‘Lazy Jack’: Coding and Contextualizing Resistance in Appalachian Women’s Narratives." NWSA Journal: A Publication of the National Women’s Studies Association vol. 11, Fall 1999, pp. 112-137. Available online through library services such as Academic Index ASAP. Transcribes and analyzes storyteller Beverly Olivia Carter-Sexton's feminist retelling of "Lazy Jack," in which she "recasts a Jack tale involving cannibalism and self-cannibalism into a tale that challenges traditional gender and economic relationships that the storyteller has observed in her native Rockcastle County, Kentucky."

Fine, Elizabeth C., and Jean Haskell, eds. Performance, Culture, and Identity. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1992. Includes "Ray Hicks: The Storyteller as Shaman" by Cheryl Oxford, "Performance as Meaning in a Mountain Folktale" by Jean Haskell Speer, "Spinstorying: An Analysis of Women Storytelling" by Kristin M. Langellier and Eric E. Peterson, and other essays (not all about Appalachia).

Flagg, Ann. "Legends of Native Americans." Instructor, vol. 109, Nov-Dec 1999, pp. 33-38. ERIC Abstract: "Presents a theme unit that includes elementary-level, cross-curricular lessons about lifestyle, belief systems, traditions, and history of Native Americans. The unit includes a poster which offers a traditional Cherokee story, literature on Native American legends, and a variety of cross-curricular activities. The unit ends with students writing their own classroom legends."

Flanagan, John T. Review of South From Hell-fer-Sartin': Kentucky Mountain Folk Tales by Leonard Roberts. Journal of American Folklore, vol. 69, no. 272, Apr.-June 1956, pp. 181-82.

Folk Heroes. Section in West Virginia's Appalachian Music and Literature teaching unit, with a variety of teaching materials on tall tale heroes Tony Beaver and John Henry. Includes audio reading and music, illustrations, writing exercises, discussion questions. Also contains sections on Ghosts, Humor, other resources, etc. (These pages formerly in West Virginia World School web site, now reprinted in AppLit.)

Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and Art. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2011. "This encyclopedia covers all the major genres of both ancient and contemporary folklore. This second edition adds more than 100 entries that examine the folklore practices of major ethnic groups, folk heroes, creatures of myth and legend, and emerging areas of interest in folklore studies." Vol. 1 includes a section on Appalachian folklore with a brief overview of folktales. The entry on "Jack and the Beanstalk" cites Richard Chase's Jack Tales. An entry on Regional Approach, explaining theories of regional folklore vs. folklore of regions, discusses Isabel Gordon Carter's 1925 article with Jack tales, stressing their importance as "perhaps the purest Jack tales we have from the rich Hicks-Harmon family repertoire. But fuller contextual information and some discussion of the connections between the stories and the Appalachian experience would have made Carter’s study even more valuable" (p. 1067). Vol. 3 has a section on Riddles.

Folklore. Appalachian Studies Bibliography 1994-2012. West Virginia University Libraries. Full biblioraphy available as pdf.

Folklore Listserv, 1990-.

Folklore Titles Published by University of Kentucky Press. See also catalog category Kentucky and Regional Studies. A web site created by Tom and Mimi Davenport, folklorist Daniel Patterson, and others in 2002  "to build a national preserve of hard-to-find documentary films about American folk or roots cultures.... [and] to give them renewed life by streaming them on the internet." Includes Davenport's documentary films about Appalachia and other American films. The web site contains a growing collection of extensive background material on folklore, including reprinted journal articles, and the making of the films. The Regions page lists Appalachian films. "Generations Portal" has guidelines for collecting and researching personal folklore.

Folk Tales from Around the World. A project to teach children international folktales, with participating schools from many nations. Contains materials on American tall tales, including John Henry and Swamp Angel.

Foxfire. Magazines and books in which teachers and students have collected Appalachian folklore since 1966. Also a play, a museum, and a center for materials on collaborative teaching and learning. Mountain City, GA. Foxfire books are also described and sold in the web site of  The Jesse Stuart Foundation: A Regional Press and Bookseller.

Francis, Lee, and James Bruchac, eds. Reclaiming the Vision: Past, Present, and Future Native Voices for the Eighth Generation. Greenfield Center, NY: Greenfield Review Press,1996. 170 pp. ERIC Abstract: "This book describes the 'Returning the Gift' project, designed to create new opportunities for North American Native writers to share their work with Native youth, the overall Native community, and the general public. The project included a festival that brought together over 200 current and emerging Native American writers (Norman, Oklahoma, July 8-11, 1992); creation of several organizations; publication of a directory of North American Native writers; and outreach writing workshops in schools. 'The Eighth Generation: Native Writing in the 21st Century' (Joseph Bruchac III) introduces the book, and 'Celebrating the Vision' (Lee Francis) provides personal observations of the writers festival. Edited excerpts of talks . . . summarize each speaker's message." The plenary session themes were (1) "Writing for Our Children, Writing for Ourselves" ( Native writing and Native identity, poetry writing, storytelling, writing in Native languages), (2) "Emerging Native Images" (weaving together our community voice, Natives in the media, Native writing and autobiography, teaching Native literature), (3) "Entering the Canons" (our place in world literature), and (4) "Earth and the Circle of Life" (Native writers and the environment). Storytelling discussions are by A. C. Ross, Vi Hilbert, Gayle Ross—"The Art of Traditional Storytelling," Sherman Alexie—"The Art of Contemporary Storytelling," and Carol Lee Sanchez—"The Performing Poet As an 'Almost Storyteller.'" "'Combining Voice with Vision' (James Bruchac) describes the writing workshops held in schools throughout Indian country." Eight lesson plans from the workshops are included. "The Wordcraft Circle Vision" (Lee Francis) describes a project that links writing mentors and apprentices, and mentors provide practical tips in the book. "An anthology presents poems and short stories by student participants in the festival, workshops, and mentoring circles. Also includes contributor profiles and pieces by project mentors."

Frankie Silver Resources. AppLit bibliography by Lana A. Whited, with links to related essays.

Frome, Allan. Our Appalachia: An Oral History. Hill and Wang Pub., 1977. Reprint edition. Lexington: U of KY Press, 1988. Ed. Laurel Shackelford and Bill Weinberg.

Fugate, Jane Muncy, narrator, and Carl Lindahl, introd. “Two Tellings of ‘Merrywise’: 1949 and 2000.” Journal of Folklore Research 38, Jan.-Aug. 2001, pp. 39-54. Audio-video clips: http:// Lindahl found and interviewed Jane Muncy Fugate, who had heard this tale from her grandmother in the 1940s and told it to Leonard Roberts when he collected tales in Kentucky.


Gainer, Patrick W., ed. Witches, Ghosts, and Signs. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, 1975. Rpt. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 2008. "Dr. Gainer was an eminent folklorist and folk song scholar who taught these topics for many years at WVU. This important source book and collection is a compilation of his lectures and research in Appalachian language patterns along with verbal lore as expressed in festival traits, weather signs, remedies and cures, beliefs and superstitions, plus other examples of nature lore" (note by Judy P. Byers).

Gantt, Patricia M. "'Controlling the Image-Making': Domestic Traditions and Women's Identity in Appalachian Literature." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 42:2, Summer-Fall 1995, pp. 91-104.

Garenton, Valerie. "Children's Games." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 21, 1973, pp. 27-31.

Gates, Larry and Terrie. Hummingbirds in Native American Mythology summarizes a variety of myths, including several Cherokee ones. The Hummingbird Web Site, 1999-2002.

Glassie, Henry. "Three Southern Mountain Jack Tales." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, vol. 30, 1964, pp. 88-102. Cheryl Oxford's dissertation notes that 2 of Glassie's storytellers are from NC and his transcriptions are valuable but he includes no notes on performance style or context.

Gilstrap, Robert L. and Doris Evens. "Folktales in the Middle Grades." Childhood Education, vol. 73, Fall 1996, pp. 23ff. Available online through library services such as Academic Index ASAP. Discusses the value of using personal folktales; local, state and regional folktales; and national and international folktales in the middle school curriculum. Gives lists of favorite folktale collections, including Richard Chase's Jack Tales.

Glen, John M. "The War on Poverty in Appalachia: Oral History from the Top Down and the Bottom Up." The Oral History Review: Journal of the Oral History Association, vol. 22:1, Summer 1995, pp. 67-93.

Goforth, Frances S. and Carolyn V. Spillman. Using Folk Literature in the Classroom: Encouraging Children to Read and Write. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1994.

Golden, Susan. "Appalachia." Book Links, May 1991, pp. 14-21. Annotated bibliography.

Golden, Susan. "Reading the World—Appalachia: An Update." Book Links, May 1996, pp. 34-40. Annotated bibliography.

Green, Lewis W. "Ghosts (by the Wind Grieved)." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 16:2, Winter 1989, pp. 165-170.

Gruner, Elisabeth Rose. "Saving 'Cinderella': History and Story in Ashpet and Ever After. Children's Literature, vol. 31, 2003, pp. 142-54. Discusses Tom Davenport's film Ashpet.

Gutierrez, C. Paige. "The Jack Tale: A Definition of a Folk Tale Sub-Genre." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 26, 1978, pp. 85-110. In special issue on Jack Tales. Detailed analysis of the character of Jack and structure of Jack tales, based on study of 51 tales from the Beech Mountain vicinity. Observes four types of luck in Jack's tales, some of which are caused by actions leading to success, not just chance. Shows that Jack has a consistent character based on perspectives and social realities of poor American farm families, who have similarities with European peasants but even less contact with upper classes (thus Jack never appears as rich or royal in beginning, "lack" at outset is caused by existing poverty, usually not interference by villain).

Gutierrez, Charlotte Paige. "The Jack Tales." M. A. Thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1975.

Gutierrez, C. Paige. "The Narrative Style of Marshall Ward, Jack Tale-Teller." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 26, 1978, pp. 111-126. In special issue on Jack Tales. With photos and excerpts from Ward's tales. Analyzes Ward's life and career as teacher and tale-teller, including influences between Ward and Richard Chase. Then his style, repertory, and context of performance are analyzed. Discusses social values conveyed in Ward's versions of tale, in, for example, his avoidance of harm caused by Jack and of marriage without romantic love, his concern for the victims of pranks (while others just enjoy the humor), his emphasis on personal relationships and emotions. Ward made up new Jack tales with traditional motifs, such as "'Jack and the Watermelon' in which Jack grows a giant watermelon, digs his way through it, and becomes king of the watermelon people." In "'Jack and the Log Cabin,' . . . Jack builds his mother a house from a single giant log." From Chase's Grandfather Tales, he told "Jack and the Outlaws" (Robin Hood) and "The Three Pigs" (with Jack as the youngest pig) (p. 121). "'Jack's Travels' is a mixture of original material, Ward claims, and portions of Gullivers Travels" (see Chase Jack Tales, p. ix.). Ward's tales all have the "'lack/lack liquidated' structure common to most Jack Tales" and the hero is "the same 'traditional nonconformist'" (p. 122). Also comments on influences of modernized versions of Jack Tales passed on by Ward and spread of tales to middle class through written versions. Cheryl Oxford's 1987 dissertation observes that this article is one of very few previous scholarly discussions of regional storytellers and performance style.


Haase, Donald, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. 3 vols. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2008. Entries dealing with Appalachian tales include "Beech Mountain Jack Tale" by Thomas McGowan; "Davenport, Tom (1939–)" by Tina L. Hanlon; "Jack Tales" and "North American Tales" by William Bernard McCarthy, "Spinning" by D. L. Ashliman (discussion of "Sam and Sooky" in Chase's Grandfather Tales as an example of the tale type The Lazy Spinning Woman and "The Girl That Weren't Ashamed to her Own Kin" in Marie Campbell's Tales from the Cloud Walking Country as an example of tales providing "a vicarious release from the drudgery of spinning"); and "Storytelling" by Joseph Daniel Sobol.

Hackworth, Dianne. Dianne's Storytelling Site. North Carolina storyteller's site includes Storytellers' and Educators' Resources, with detailed bibliographies on storytelling.

Hagerman, Johnny. Brick sculptor of SW Virginia and Tennessee. See Jack Tales Wall below.

Haley, Gail E. "From the Ananse Stories to the Jack Tales: My Work with Folktales." Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol. 11, Fall 1986, pp. 118-121. Available online through library services such as Project Muse. Includes discussion and illustration from Jack and the Beantree, which was Haley's latest book when this article was written.

Haley, Gail E. "Everyman Jack and the Green Man." Proceedings of the Ninth Annua! Conference of the Children's Literature Association, University of Florida, March, 1982.

Hall, Joseph S. "Witchlore and Ghostlore in the Great Smokeys." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, vol. 36, 1970, pp. 31-36.

Halpert, Herbert. "Folktales in Children's Books: Some Notes and Reviews." Midwest Folklore, vol. 2, no. 1, Spring 1952, pp. 59-71. Surveys children's folktale collections as items of interest to folklorists, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses and suggesting criteria for evaluation. Discusses the importance of authenticity and scholarship, pointing out the work of Richard Chase and Harold Courlander as outstanding examples. (notes by Linnea Hendrickson).

Hamessley, Lydia. "Resisting Performance of an Appalachian Traditional Murder Ballad: Giving Voice to 'Pretty Polly'." Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture, vol. 9, 2005, pp. 13-36. Available through Project Muse.

Hancock, Joyce. "Raglif Taglif Teeterlif Pole, A Folk Myth." Appalachian Heritage, vol. 15, Spring 1987. Jungian reading of a Jack tale.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Chinese Students Learn Jack Tales." In The Franklin News-Post [Rocky Mount, VA], 19 June 2006, with headline "China Students Learn about Jack Tales." Full text in AppLit at this link. Article on Jack Tale Player Thomas Townsend teaching Stephenson's Jack Tale adaptations to students in China.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Digging Deeper in the Oral Tradition: Faculty/Student Research on Appalachian Folktales." Presentation based on research by Tina Hanlon, N. Michelle Vincent, and Rex Stephenson at Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Dayton, Ohio, Mar. 18, 2006.

Hanlon, Tina L. "From Fool of the World to Regional Trickster: Adaptations of European-American Folktales in Appalachia." Paper presented at Congress of the International Research Society for Children's Literature, Trinity College, Dublin, Aug. 14, 2005.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Folktales in Appalachian Fiction for Children and Young Adults." Paper presented at Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY, March 30, 2003. Abstract in AppLit.

Hanlon, Tina L. "It's Not All About Jack: Old and New Tales from Anne Shelby." Appalachian Journal, vol. 35, Summer 2008, pp. 366-70. Review essay on Shelby's The Adventures of Molly Whuppie and Other Appalachian Folktales includes discussion of Shelby's sources, other Appalachian tales, and strong female characters in folk and fairy tales.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Jack Tales." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Vol. 1. Ed. Jack Zipes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. (Reprint in MyWire accessed 12/6/09)

Hanlon, Tina L. "The Jack Tales in Appalachia." "On Writers and Writing": Papers Presented at the Virginia Humanities Conference, March 28-30, 1996. Charlottesville: Univ. of VA, 1996.

Hanlon, Tina L. “Mutsmag: An Appalachian Folk Heroine and her European Ancestors.” Full text in AppLit. Originally presented at Congress of International Research Society for Children’s Literature, Worcester University, UK, Aug. 11, 2015.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Old and New Stories from Appalachia." The Five Owls , no. 3, 2003, issue on The New South. Reprinted in The Five Owls web site.

Hanlon, Tina L. “Regional Adaptations of Wonder Tales: Strong Women in Appalachia ” Paper with PowerPoint slides presented at International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts, Orlando, Florida, March 18, 2016.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Strong Women in Appalachian Folktale Dramatizations by R. Rex Stephenson." 2001-2003. Full text in AppLit.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Strong Women in Appalachian Folktales." The Lion & the Unicorn, vol. 24, April 2000, pp. 225-46. Earlier version in Proceedings of the Virginia Humanities Conference, April 1994. Christopher Newport U, 1994. Available online at this link through Project Muse.

Hanlon, Tina L. "Vital Words and Actions in the Work of May Justus and Richard Chase." Full text in AppLit, revised 2015-17. Originally presented at Appalachian Studies Association conference, 2005.

Hanlon, Tina L. "'Way back yonder, but not so far away': Teaching Appalachian Folktales." Appalachia in the Classroom: Teaching the Region. Ed. Theresa L Burriss and Patricia M. Gantt. Series in Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Appalachia. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2013, pp. 95-108. Most of the other essays are about teaching literature.

Hanlon, Tina L. and R. Rex Stephenson. "Adapting Folktales for the Stage: Collaboration Between the Literary Critic and the Playwright." Papers presented at the Fourth Biennial Conference on Modern Critical Approaches to Children's Literature, Nashville, April 7, 2001.

Hanlon, Tina L. and R. Rex Stephenson. Interview with Rex Stephenson on The Jack Tale Players.” Guest blog. Home to Author-Illustrator-Teacher-Speaker Elizabeth O. Dulemba. 7 Jan. 2016. Article with photos celebrating 40th anniversary (which was Dec. 11, 2015) and history of Stephenson's Jack Tale adaptations and storytelling .

Hanlon, Tina L. and Lana Whited. "Ferrum Performers Keep Jack Tales Alive." ALCA-Lines:  Journal of the Assembly on the Literature and Culture of Appalachia, vol. V, 1997, pp. 20-23. Full text reprinted in AppLit.

Hardin, James. "Storytellers Weave Tradition and Personal Experience at the National Book Festival." Folklife Center News (Library of Congress), vol. 25, No. 4, Fall 2003, pp. 11-12. Other articles in this newsletter refer to Appalachian storytelling also. The print and pdf. versions of this newsletter contain photos.

Harris, Jesse W. Review of Up Cutshin and Down Greasy by Leonard Roberts. Journal of American Folklore, vol. 73, no. 287, Jan.-Mar. 1960, pp. 66-67.

Harvey, Todd. "Jack Tales and Their Tellers in the Archive of Folk Culture." Folklife Center News (Library of Congress) 25, No. 4, Fall 2003, pp. 7-10. Other articles in this newsletter refer to Appalachian storytelling also. The print and pdf versions have photos of Ray Hicks, Maud Long, Richard Chase, and Frank Warner.

Hatfield, G. E., Leonard Roberts, and Henry P. Scalf. The Hatfields. Stanville, KY: Big Sandy Valley Historical Society, 1974. 207 pp.

Hathaway, Joyce A. "The Uses of Appalachian Culture and Oral Tradition in the Teaching of Literature to Adolescents." Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1979, 182 pp., DA 40:3933A. Emphasizes the Jack Tales and compares their use in the oral tradition and their use in written literature. (note by Linnea Hendrickson)

Hayes, Bruce P., and Margaret MacEachern. "Quatrain Form in English Folk Verse." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, vol. 74:3, Sept. 1998, pp. 473-507.

Hayes, Kevin J. A History of Virginia Literature. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2015. Chap. 19 is "Virginia Folklore" by Ted Olson. Chap. 22 is "Virginia Writers Project" by Tom Barden, which includes folklore collecting and discussion of his collection Virginia Folk Legends.

Hearne, Betsy. "Swapping Tales and Stealing Stories: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Folklore in Children's Literature." Library Trends, vol. 47, Winter 1999, pp. 509-28.

Hedges, James S. "Attributive Mutation in Cherokee Natural History Myth." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 21, 1973, pp. 147-54.

Hendricks, George D. Review of Up Cutshin and Down Greasy by Leonard Roberts. Western Folklore, vol. 19, no. 4, Oct., 1960, pp. 288-89.

Henigan, Julie. "'Mother Bake My Cake and Kill My Cock': Social Structure and the Irish and American Jack Tales." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 34:2, Summer-Fall 1987, pp. 87-105. Discusses folk narrative, Jack tales, Ireland and United States, Appalachia, structure, characterization, relationship to society (WorldCat). Includes the Ozarks in relation to Appalachian tales, and tales in which the main character is called Nippy, Merrywise, John, and Mickey. Jack is consistent in both traditions as "trickster figure or fairy-tale hero" (89). The typical structure (based on Propp's structural analysis) is "lack/lack liquidated" and "hero departs/hero returns," returning to the real world but not always the same home (90, 94). Insufficiency and poverty initiate action in many Jack tales. Jack leaves home to seek his fortune but has more "mobility and freedom" in American tales, reflecting more open space and frequent movement of immigrants in Appalachia about 1720-1850 (92). His journey is linear rather than circular. Getting and clearing newground occur in Appalachian tales (93). Jack's brothers are in about a third of Appalachian tales but there are far less emphasis on family and more independence than in Irish tales (95). In Ireland restoring harmony more often meant maintaining the traditional social structure and dependencies, returning home to support the family and established authorities. The end of the article discusses passing on social values to children with marchen, and adjusting to new conditions when settlers moved to and within Appalachia.

Henry, John. See AppLit's index page on variants of the John Henry legend and annotated bibliography.

Herrin, Roberta T. “Constancy and Change in Anne Shelby’s Children’s Books.” The Iron Mountain Review, vol. 27, Spring 2011, pp. 24-27.

Herrin, Roberta. "The Culture and the Classroom." Appalachian Journal, vol. 29, Summer 2002, pp. 425-27. In this short article, part of a forum on teaching Appalachian studies by excellent teacher-scholars, Herrin discusses hearing Richard Chase's Jack tales read at school in 3rd grade and learning later to appreciate folklore archetypes, not stereotypes, in tricksters such as Jack and Sut Luvingood.

Herrin, Roberta. "Folk Medicine for the Wee Folk." Paper presented at Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY, March 30, 2003. Abstract in AppLit.

Herrin, Roberta. "Universal Themes in Appalachian Children's Literature." Education in Appalachia:  Proceedings from the 1987 Conference on Appalachia University of KY: The Appalachian Center, pp. 117-23.

Herrin, Roberta T., and Sarah K. Davis, eds. Journey through Fantasy Literature: A Resource Guide for Teachers. 2 Vols. Johnson City: East Tennessee State Univ., 1992. Developed by participants in a Teachers Institute sponsored by East Tennessee State University and the National Endowment for the Humanities, 1988–89. Selections from these volumes that involve Appalachian literature (mainly folktales) are reprinted in this web site as AppLit study guides and articles.

Herrin, Roberta T., and Sheila Quinn Oliver. Appalachian Children's Literature: An Annotated Bibliography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010. Foreword by George Ella Lyon. Lists many children's books based on folklore. "This bibliography includes books written about or set in Appalachia from the 18th century to the present [2007]. Titles represent the entire region as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The bibliography is arranged in alphabetical order by author, and each title is accompanied by an annotation, most of which include composite reviews and critical analyses of the work" (from publisher). Includes a subject index and recommendations by children's and young adult grade level.

Hickman, Carolyn Neale. "'What to Throw Away/What to Keep': Mobilizing Expressive Culture and Regional Reconstruction in Appalachia." Univ. of NC-Chapel Hill diss., 1999. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 60:7, Jan. 2000, 2493. Includes discussion of folk literature and a number of writers.

Hicks. See AppLit's bibliography Ray and Orville Hicks: Storytellers of North Carolina, and Other Storytellers from the Hicks-Harmon Family.

Higgs, Robert J., Ambrose N. Manning, and Jim Wayne Miller, eds. Appalachia Inside Out: A Sequel to Voices from the Hills. 2 vols. Knoxville: U of TN Pr, 1995. Essays, stories, and poems on all aspects of Appalachian studies, including folklore, humor, and education. Vol. 2 chap. 4, Dialect and Language, contains two essays on storyteller Ray Hicks and a copy of "Whickety-Whack, into my Sack" as told by Hicks.

Hill, Reinhold L. "'These Stories Are Not 'Real,' but They Are as Real as I Can Make Them': Lee Smith's Literary Ethnography." Southern Folklore, vol. 57:2, 2000, pp. 106-18.

Hillchild: A Folklore Chapbook about, for, and by West Virginia Children. Edited by Dr. Judy Byers and Noel W. Tenney, West Virginia Folklife Center, Fairmont State College. Vol. 1, 2002, contains stories, background, and related activities on tall tales and WV hero Tony Beaver, with cover drawing of Tony Beaver by Noel W. Tenney. Also contains letters by Cheryl Ware and her fictional character Venola Mae, and a version with illustration of rhyme "The Marriage of the Frog and the Mouse." This first issue was given to every fourth grade class in the state. More detail in AppLit's Review of Hillchild. Vol. 2, 2003, has the theme of nature.

Hobbs, J. E. "Sketches from Appalachia." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 22, 1974, pp. 26-32.

Horton, Laurel, and Mabel Moser. "Selected Folklore Books and Other Media Resources for North Carolina Schools." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 26, 1978, pp. 37-43.

Horwitz, Jane. "Developing a Mountain Range: Spirit of Appalachian Wonder Tales Inspires 'Sing Down the Moon' Writers." The Washington Post, 21 Mar. 2000, Style p. C05, Final Edition. Full text accessed through Lexis-Nexis 5/7/03. About a production at Theater of the First Amendment of a musical "adaptation by playwright Mary Hall Surface of six Appalachian 'wonder tales' that combine and regionalize European fairy tales." Surface, a KY native, describes her Jungian approach to the tales about growing up.

House, Christine Y. "Cultural Understanding through Folklore." Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Vol. II, 1993. Curriculum Unit 93.02.05. (23 Jan. 1998). A narrative explanation of a teaching unit. "The focus of my unit will be to teach cultural understanding to third graders by reading, viewing and sharing folktales from a variety of sources around the world. It has become increasingly clear to me that many inner-city children don’t have a sense of their own history. . . . I will emphasize the ancestry of the students in my schools, but I don’t want to limit the study simply to folklore from Black, African or Puerto Rican traditions. Since we all live in the United States, I want to include stories from many lands, with a strong emphasis on the American Indian. . . . Also, many of our children are of Indian extraction, be it Cherokee, Blackfeet, Taino or Mayan."

Huber, Patrick. "Red Necks and Red Bandanas: Appalachian Coal Miners and the Coloring of Union Identity, 1912-1936." Western Folklore, vol. 65:1-2, 2006 Winter-Spring, pp. 195-210. Discusses folk literature and song of coal miners.

Hudson, Arthur Palmer and Pete Kyle McCarter. "The Bell Witch of Tennessee and Mississippi: A Folk Legend." The Journal of American Folklore, vol. 47, no. 183, Jan. -Mar. 1934, pp. 45-63.

Humez, Nick. "Uncle Fud." Verbatim: The Language Quarterly, vol. 27:3, Summer 2002, pp. 23-27. MLA Bibliography subject headings: Folk literature; folk poetry; ballad; Appalachia; use of kinship terms.

Hutcheson, Neal. “Gary Carden: Folklorist, Playwright, and Storyteller.” North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 53, no. 2, Fall-Winter 2006, pp. 7-10.


In The Mountain State: A West Virginia Folklore and Cultural Studies Curriculum "is designed primarily as a teacher's guide for 4-8 grade program of West Virginia studies; however, it provides an excellent resource for other applications on both elementary and secondary levels. It is useful in English, social studies, and arts (visual arts, folk arts, music/vocal-instrumental, dance, etc.). It is also useful in non-academic settings." West Virginia Folklife Center, Fairmont State College.

Inge, M. T., ed. The Frontier Humorists: Critical Views. Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1975. Includes "Davy Crockett: The Legend and the Symbol" by James Atkins Shackkford and James H. Penrod's essay "Harden E. Taliaferro (1818-1875): Harden Taliaferro, Folk Humorist of North Carolina."

Isbell, Robert. The Keepers: Mountain Folk Holding on to Old Skills and Talents. Photos by Arthur Tilley. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair Publishing. "In a time when the arts and crafts of the pioneers are often practiced in imitation, the men and women in these pages—keepers of the old ways—honor the teachings of their forebears. This is a glimpse into their lives" (from description at publisher's web site).

Isbell, Robert. Ray Hicks: Master Storyteller of the Blue Ridge. Foreword by Wilma Dykeman. Chapel Hill: Univ. of NC Press, 2001. Originally published as The Last Chivaree, 1996. Includes bibliography. 175 pp.


Jackson, Lauralee. "Sculpture Reflects Appalachian Folk Tales." Bluefield Daily Telegraph [Bluefield, WV], 26 Oct. 1997, pp. B1, 2. Short article about the brick sculpture called the Jack Tales Wall at Southwest Virginia Community College, designed by Charles Vess and built by Johnny Hagerman. Photo of the wall is included.

Jackson, Sarah Evelyn. "Ashley Weaver: Microcosm of Appalachia." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 4, 1977, pp. 169-74. Life history.

Jack Tale Players and Jack Tale Storytellers. Ferrum College. The Jack Tale Players dramatized Appalachian folktales 1975-2012. Since then a smaller group called the Jack Tale Storytellers has performed dramatic storytelling. Web pages with background, photos, and booking information. Many articles about the Jack Tale Players, as well as scripts and tales by the founder/director/playwright are listed in AppLit's bibliography Dramas and Tales by R. Rex Stephenson.

The Jack Tales Wall. Green Man Press web site. SW VA artist Charles Vess was commissioned in 1992 to create a brick sculpture wall at SW VA Community College, Richlands, VA. Vess explains the use of specific Jack Tales with photos of scenes on the wall. Brick sculptor Johnny Hagerman completed this wall and a more recent one based on nearby American Indian pictographs and wildlife. The Jack Tales Wall page at SWVCC has a photo of Hardy Hardhead and the magic landship. The Book of Ballads and Sagas is another illustrated project by Vess, begun 1995, with "Thomas the Rhymer" written by VA author Sharyn McCrumb. See also A Dream of Apples, art exhibit by Vess, 1998-2002, The Endicott Studio web site, with article by Terri Windling, including paintings of Barbara Allen and Thomas the Rhymer. (Some of these materials are no longer online.)

Jenkins, Henry. "Kings of the Wild Backyard: Davy Crockett and Children's Space." In Kids' Media Culture. Ed. Marsha Kinder. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press, 1999. With essays on other types of television and computer influences on children.

"John Henry." See AppLit's index page on variants of the John Henry legend and annotated bibliography.

Johnson, F. Roy, ed. How and Why Stories in Carolina Folklore. Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson Pubs., 1971.

Johnson, F. Roy. Supernaturals Among Carolina Folk and Their Neighbors. Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson Pubs., 1974.

Johnson, F. Roy. "Survivals of Old Christmas." North Carolina Folklore, vol. 19, 1971, pp. 145-50.

Johnson, F. Roy. "Two John Stories." North Carolina Folklore, vol. 20, 1972, pp. 120-22. 

Jones, Loyal. "Leicester Luminist Lighted Local Language and Lore." Appalachian Heritage, vol. 30:1, Winter 2002, pp. 18-25. Discusses Jim Wayne Miller and folk literature.

Jones, Loyal. My Curious and Jocular Heroes: Tales and Tale-Spinners from Appalachia. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2017. "With this book, Jones introduces to new generations four scholars of Appalachian folkways who made major contributions to the arts, culture, and values of the Appalachian people. Bascom Lamar Lunsford, born in North Carolina, collected ballads, songs, tunes, and stories--before there were tape recorders--by committing them all to memory and later recording his 'memory collection' for Columbia University (1935) and the Library of Congress (1949). Josiah H. Combs, a Kentuckian who got a doctorate at the Sorbonne, taught languages, collected stories and songs, gave ballad recitals, was an authority on Kentucky mountain speech, and was a great raconteur. Cratis D. Williams, another Kentuckian, was the father of Appalachian studies based on his massive dissertation, The Southern Mountaineer in Fact and Fiction. He was a scholar and teacher, a singer of the old ballads, and teller of folk tales. He became Jones's treasured mentor. And the master storyteller Leonard W. Roberts, also born in Kentucky, was a pioneer collector and publisher of Old World folktales, riddles, ballads, and lyric songs, too. Beyond mere biography, this book introduces the reader to some of the lore preserved and performed by Lunsford, Combs, Williams, and Roberts throughout their lives. The end of each biographical chapter is filled with collected stories, songs, and jokes representing the breadth of each man's research and repertoire." Roberts' Introduction warns that he has "included several suggestive or obscene songs, stories, articles, and jokes," which he finds to be "funny and revealing about these four Appalachian scholars and performers, and also about the human race."

Jones, Michael Owen, ed. Putting Folklore to Use. Lexington: University Press of KY, 1994. 264 pp.

Joosen, Vanessa. Critical and Creative Perspectives on Fairy Tales: An Intertextual Dialogue between Fairy-Tale Scholarship and Postmodern Retellings. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 2011. This book examines the interaction between fairy tale criticism and retellings from the early 1970s to 2008. In chap. 2, which discusses the influence of Marcia Lieberman's 1972 article "Some Day My Prince Will Come," a section on "Cinderella" retellings notes that Smoky Mountain Rose by Schroeder and Sneed (1997) has an emphasis on the heroine's suffering and silence that is rare after 1990, and Rose speaks even less than Perrault's or Grimms' heroines, while the 1940s setting demonstrates the tendency to set retellings with traditional gender roles in the past, before the late twentieth-century feminist movement. Joosen compares this "“sentimentality and lack of female agency and verbosity" with other retellings in which the heroine speaks little or speaks only "in direct response to others, a pattern that Bottigheimer considers indicative of unequal gender relationships in the Grimms' tales" (p. 84).

Journal of Folklore Research. Special Double Issue: Perspectives on the Jack Tales and Other North American Märchen. Vol. 38, Nos. 1-2 (January-August 2001). Edited by Carl Lindahl. Includes several tales as well as articles. Articles are available online through library databases such as Academic Index. See details under Lindahl, below, on book with the same title. See Appalachian Folktales in General Collections, Journals and Web Sites for details on tales included.


Kader, Emily. "'Rose Connolly' Revisited: Re-Imagining the Irish in Southern Appalachia." Journal of American Folklore, vol. 127, Fall 2014. "This essay revisits the Appalachian murder ballad 'Rose Connolly' [also known as 'Down in the Willow Garden'], the subject of a 1979 essay by D. K. Wilgus. Following Wilgus, I offer further evidence of the song's presence in Ireland and interrogate persistent hesitancy to claim Irish influence on Appalachian folklore. My analysis then traces this bias to the influence of Cecil Sharp's English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians (Sharp and Campbell 1917) and his theories of race in the British Isles and Appalachia. Ultimately, I use 'Rose Connolly' to re-imagine Irish diasporic and Appalachian identities.... The second part of this essay focuses on the career and legacy of English folklore collector Cecil Sharp, whose desire to locate Englishness in Appalachia, I argue, provides the foundational misunderstanding about the cultural linkage between Ireland and the Southern Appalachians. His failure to publish 'Rose Connolly,' I argue, points to his desire to manipulate, if not sever, the connection between Ireland and Appalachia that shows itself more subtly throughout the ballad traditions of both geographies."

Kader, Emily. "Shared Traditions: Irish and Appalachian Ballads and Whiskey Songs." Rethinking the Irish in the American South: Beyond Rounders and Reelers. Ed. Bryan Albin Giemza. University Press of Mississippi, 2013, pp. 122-39.

Kader, Emily. “Surviving Folklore: Transnational Irish Folk Traditions and the Politics of Genre.” Ph.D. diss., Emory University, 2011. 281 pp. "Project approaches five major folklore collections [including]...Cecil Sharp’s English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, and Richard Chase’s The Jack Tales.”

Kelley, Saundra G., ed. Southern Appalachian Storytellers: Interviews with Sixteen Keepers of the Oral Tradition. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011. "To be from Appalachia—to be at home there and to love it passionately—informs the narratives of each of the sixteen storytellers featured in this work. Their stories are rich in the lore of the past, influenced by family, especially grandparents, and the ancient mountains they saw every day of their lives as they were growing up." The storytellers are Sheila Kay Adams, Lloyd Arneach, Marilou Awiakta, Gary Carden, Jo Carson, Angelyn Debord, Elizabeth Ellis, John Thomas Fowler, Linda Goss, Rosa Hicks, Ted Hicks, Dot Jackson, Charlotte Ross, James "Sparky" Rucker, Betty Smith, and Jerry Wolfe.

Kenkel, Ken. "The Constant Aesthetic of Bobby McMillon: 'I've Just Always Tried to Find Any Old Song or Story That I Could." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 32, Spring-Summer 1984, pp. 18-29. Article based on interview with McMillon, native of Lenoir, NC (1951- ), about the complex relationships among his family/community heritage "in a folk cultural setting," his transition to a folklorist, and then to a Folk Artist presenting tales, songs, and riddles "in formal public settings" (p. 19). Among his influences was meeting Dr. Cratis Williams while in high school, and Williams had been encouraged by his KY high school teacher to record the songs from his family traditions. As a performer, McMillon said kids preferred "booger tales" such as "The Big Toe," and "The Two Sisters" while he enjoyed telling Jack tales and legends if there was time, as he liked listening to tales all night in informal settings. The people he learned folklore from in his childhood important to him along with the songs, tales and riddles. See also article by McMillon in Southern Exposure, below.

King, Duane H., and Laura H. King. "The Mythico-Religious Origin of the Cherokees." Appalachian Journal, vol. 2, 1974-75, pp. 259-64.

King, Laura H. "The Cherokee Story-Teller: The Red and Green Crayfish." Journal of Cherokee Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, Spring 1977, pp. 246-50.

King, Laura H. "The Cherokee Story-Teller: The Trickster Turtle." Journal of Cherokee Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, Fall 1976, pp. 110-13.

King, Laura H. "The Cherokee Story-Teller: The Ustahli Myth." Journal of Cherokee Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, Summer 1976, pp. 55-59.

Kleber, John E. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1992. Page on The Kentucky Encyclopedia at U of KY Press web site. For online version, see


Larch, Lillie. "Cherokee Culture across the Curriculum." Hands On, no. 47, Spring 1993, pp. 31-33. "A teacher describes how she integrated Cherokee culture and folklore with the required curriculum at Cherokee Elementary School (Cherokee, North Carolina). Includes an annotated list of 22 Native American cultural resources and a list of 30 books and journal articles on folk games and toys and their uses in education" (ERIC item EJ480025).

Larkin, Chuck. "What Is Storytelling?" 1997. Barry McWilliams' Home Page. Larkin's description of different types and methods of storytelling, from a discussion on the Storyteller Listserv.

Lime Kiln. Beginning in 1983, the unique outdoor Theater at Lime Kiln, near Lexington, VA, presented dramas based on Appalachian folklore and culture, as well as other plays. Adaptations of specific folktales have included Munci Meg, Three Drops of Blood, and Like Meat Loves Salt (the latter on a web page with 2003 special events). The Baker, the Bear and the Blacksmith is a musical comedy about folk hero Simon Greene. The Magic Mirror is based on Hans Christian Andersen's "The Snow Queen" and set in Virginia.

Lindahl, Carl. "Cinderella in America: A Book of Folk and Fairy Tales (Review)." Marvels & Tales, vol. 23. 1, 2009, p. 178. Review of anthology edited by William Bernard McCarthy. See Appalachian Folktales in General Collections, Journals and Web Sites.

Lindahl, Carl. "Female Narrators, Protagonists, and Villains of the American Mountain Märchen." Fabula: Journal of Folktale Studies, vol. 52, 2011. Abstract: "Although collectors, publishers, and scholars of American Märchen have devoted most of their attention to male narrators and a male hero named Jack, evidence from oral narrative tradition affirms that in fact it was women who dominated the oral Märchen-telling traditions of the Appalachian and Ozark mountains, where the English-language Märchen is best known. Relying principally on tales collected by Vance Randolph in the Ozarks between 1920 and 1957 and those told in an eastern Kentucky family between 1949 and 2004, this study centers on three observations. First, female and male mountain narrators differ in their approaches to Märchen: women tend to emphasize their legendary qualities while men exploit their potential for humor. Second, the Märchen most commonly told by both men and women in the American mountains (ATU 326 and ATU 366) blur the boundaries between legend and Märchen, and they focus upon female domestic space. Third, the significant differences in the ways that women and men perform these popular tales suggest that women often tell them to critique male violence and to call attention to the enormous responsibilities faced by women when left to run mountain households by themselves."

Lindahl, Carl. "Introduction: Representing and Recovering the British- and Irish-American Märchen." Journal of Folklore Research, Jan.-Aug. 2001, pp. 7+. Also in Perspectives on the Jack Tales and other North American Märchen. Bloomington, IN: Folklore Institute/Indiana University, Bloomington, 2001, pp. 7-38. Includes picture of a brochure illustrating Richard Chase's self-promotion in the 1980s and a photo of storyteller Dicy Adams. "This brief history of North American Märchen studies identifies some reasons for the academy's neglect of the genre, outlines the careers of the two early collectors (Vance Randolph and Leonard Roberts) most responsible for documenting oral Märchen traditions, and weighs the enormous influence of Richard Chase and his book The Jack Tales on both the academic community and the public at large. The essay also traces the efforts of Herbert Halpert and others to advance British- and Irish-American Märchen studies. It concludes by assessing important recent Märchen scholarship (as exemplified in books by William B. McCarthy, Charles L. Perdue Jr., and Herbert Halpert and J. D. A. Widdowson) and by describing the research of Perdue, Martin Lovelace, and Carl Lindahl included in this volume" (from first page of article).

Lindahl, Carl. Excerpt from “Jacks: The Name, The Tales, The American Traditions” reprinted at See McCarthy's Jack In Two Worlds below. Excellent introduction to the tradition of British-American Jack Tales.

Lindahl, Carl. "Leonard Roberts, The Farmer-Lewis-Muncy Family, and the Magic Circle of the Mountain Märchen." Journal of American Folklore, vol. 123, no. 489, 2010, pp. 251–75. This speech discusses the life and career of Leonard Roberts, who collected over a thousand folktales in Leslie and Perry County, KY. Roberts' first informant was an excellent storyteller at age 11, Jane Muncy. Lindahl interviewed her in her 60s, learning about the circumstances of her grandmother teaching her "Merrywise" and other tales when Jane was a very young child in need of nurturing. The article explains the concepts of the forestory, the oral story in performance, and the understory.

Lindahl, Carl. Perspectives on the Jack Tales and other North American Märchen. Bloomington, IN: Folklore Institute/Indiana University, Bloomington, 2001. 179 pp. Series: Special Publications of the Folklore Institute, no. 6. Note: "Originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 38, nos. 1 and 2 (January-August 2001)" (WorldCat). The 2001 journal articles are available in full text through library databases such as InfoTrac (see details under journal title, above). "This volume is about...a vernacular art form that has been strangely ignored or misconstructed by many. At the same time, the genre's vitality and appeal are evidenced by its persistent presentation as written literature. The essays in this volume re-examine common assumptions about 'magic' tales and their tellers, reconsidering the performance, collection, transcription, publication, and interpretation of narratives that continue to live orally - especially in the private realm - as one mechanism of intergenerational communication or as symbolic articulation of worldview." This book "grew out of research presented at 'American Magic: The Fates of Oral Fiction in the New World,' a conference held at the University of Houston in October 1997. In addition to four interpretive essays, six segments feature narrators and their transcribed narratives, accompanied by contextualizing introductions. Some segments compare editing practices or narrative styles; others represent the first publication of contemporary narratives to tales that have long lain in archives, unheard and unavailable. All attest to the skill of the tellers and the artistry of their creations" (book jacket).

Lindahl, Carl. "Sounding a Shy Tradition: Oral and Written Styles of American Mountain Märchen." Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 38:1-2, Jan.-Aug. 2001, pp. 68-98. Also in Perspectives on the Jack Tales and other North American Märchen. Bloomington, IN: Folklore Institute/Indiana University, Bloomington, 2001. Includes discussion of the approaches and influence of the most prominent mountain folktale collectors: Richard Chase, Leonard Roberts, and Vance Randolph. See details at this link in Chase bibliography.

Lindahl, Carl. "A Tale of Verbal Economy: 'Stiff Dick.'" Journal of Folklore Research,vol. 38, Jan.-August 2001, pp. 1+. Also in Perspectives on the Jack Tales and other North American Märchen. Bloomington, IN: Folklore Institute/Indiana University, Bloomington, 2001. pp. 1-6. Critical essay with text of the tale "Stiff Dick," told by Harmon near Maryville, Tennessee, April 27, 1939. "The tale was recorded by Herbert Halpert for the Archive of American Folk Song and is currently housed in the Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress (recordings AFS 2924B, 2925A)." Lindahl observes that "these tales represent the earliest sound recordings of America's most celebrated Märchen-telling family: the Hicks-Harmon family, whose members include Jane Gentry, Maud Long, and Ray Hicks. . . . the same extended family that provided Richard Chase with many of the stories that appear in Chase's The Jack Tales (1943). Lindahl compares Harmon's "efficient" performance with Chase's longer published tale, "Jack and the Varmints," which was based on four versions collected from the Hicks-Harmon family. Full text accessed 1/14/04 through library database Expanded Academic Index ASAP.

Lindahl, Carl. "The Uses of Terror: Appalachian Märchen-Telling, Folklore Methodology, and Narrator's Truth." Fabula,vol. 47. 3-4, 2006, pp. 264-76.

Lindahl, Carl. "Who is Jack? A Study in Isolation." Fabula: Journal of Folktale Studies, vol. 29, 1988, pp. 374-82.

Lindahl, Carl and Charles L. Perdue, Jr. "Storybook Style: 'Jack and the Green Man.'" Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 38, Jan.-Aug. 2001, p. 106. Also in Perspectives on the Jack Tales and other North American Märchen. Bloomington, IN: Folklore Institute/Indiana University, Bloomington, 2001. pp. 106-10. Critical essay with the tale as written down by Louise Fontaine Mann, 1945, who said it was passed down through at least five generations of her family in Virginia. Literary diction and allusions indicate that American oral tellers were influenced by literature although tales from Hicks-Harmon family don't have these elements. Compares this tale with others of the type AT 313, "The Girl as Helper in the Hero's Flight"; others have giants as villain and this is the only American one they know that has the green man.

Lindahl, Carl Fugate, introd. and Jane Muncy, narrator. “Two Tellings of ‘Merrywise’: 1949 and 2000.” Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 38, Jan.-Aug. 2001, pp. 39-54. Audio-video clips: http:// Lindahl found and interviewed Jane Muncy Fugate, who had heard this tale from her grandmother in the 1940s and told it to Leonard Roberts in Kentucky .

Locher, Jack. "The Persistence of Material and Non-Material Culture: Germanic Influence in Appalachia." Pioneer America Society Transactions, vol. 9, 1986, pp. 57-62.

Lofaro, Michael A., ed. Davy Crockett: The Man, the Legend, the Legacy, 1786-1986. Knoxville: U of Tenn. Press, 1985.

Long, Susan. "Family Heritage: History and Folklore." Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness, vol. 1, Fall-Winter 1993, pp. 6-11. ERIC Abstract: "As a means of integrating Appalachian culture and folklore into the curriculum, a fifth-grade social studies unit has students create a personal history book by studying the origin and history of their own name, developing their own memory stories, developing a family tree, studying family artifacts and old photographs, and interviewing family members. Includes 32 Appalachian resources."

Lopina, Colleen Pierce. "The Reflective Partnership of Folklore and Culture in the Jack Tales." M. A. Thesis. Wake Forest University, Dept. of Liberal Studies, 2001. 58 leaves. Focus on Beech Mountain storytelling in NC.

Lovelace, Martin. "Jack and His Masters: Real Worlds and Tale Worlds in Newfoundland Folktales." Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 38, Jan.-Aug. 2001, pp. 149ff. Available online through library services such as Academic Index ASAP. Focuses on the way magic tales from Newfoundland transferred values from an agricultural British world to maritime life as they "offer models of behavior for young working-class men, particularly in their relationships with employers." Some comparison with Richard Chase tales is included.


McCarthy, William Bernard. Jack in Two Worlds: Contemporary North American Tales & Their Tellers. Chapel Hill: Univ. of NC Press, 1994. Contains tales edited by McCarthy, Cheryl Oxford, and Joseph Daniel Sobol, as well as discussions by folklore experts Carl Lindahl, Bill Ellis, Joseph Daniel Sobol, and others. Part I, "The Hicks-Harmon (Beech Mountain) Jack Tale Tradition," gives background and tales from Ray Hicks, Frank Proffitt, Jr., Marshall Ward, Maud Gentry Long, and W. F. H. Nicolaisen. Part 2, "Jack in the Storytelling Revival," includes Leonard Roberts, Donald Davis, Bonely Lugg Kyofski (PA), and Stewart Cameron (Toronto). Discusses Jack Tales before and after 1943 publication by Richard Chase, tellers associated with Chase and others far away from Beech Mountain tradition. McCarthy's introduction examines the effects of Chase's book on perceptions of the tales and on subsequent retellings. Excerpt from Carl Lindahl's “Jacks: The Name, The Tales, The American Traditions” reprinted at

McCarthy, William Bernard. "Olive Dame Campbell and Appalachian Tradition: Selected Papers from the 26th International Ballad Conference (SIEF Ballad Commission), Swansea, Wales, 19-24 July 1996," pp. 69-80. In Cheesman, Tom (ed.); and Rieuwerts, Sigrid (ed.).  Ballads into Books: The Legacies of Francis James Child. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 1999. 283 pp.

McCoy, Edain. In a Graveyard at Midnight: Folk Magick and Wisdom from the Heart of Appalachia. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn, 1995. xx, 212 pp. On Folk belief systems, magic, and folk medicine.

McCoy, Edain. Mountain Magick: Folk Magick & Wisdom From the Heart of Appalachia. Llewellyn’s Practical Magick Series. Saint Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1997. 240 pp.

McCoy, Sam, Hobert McCoy, and Orville McCoy. Squirrel Huntin' Sam Mccoy: His Memoir and Family Tree. Ed. Leonard Roberts. Pikeville, KY: Pikeville College Press, 1979.

McCoy, Truda W. The McCoys: Their Story As Told to the Author by Eye Witnesses and Descendants. Ed. Leonard Roberts. Pikeville, KY: Preservation Council Press of the Preservation Council of Pike County, 1976.

McCrumb, Sharyn. Sharyn McCrumb's Appalachia: A Collection of Essays on the Mountain South. Waverly TN: Oconee Spirit Press, 2011. The essays are "Keepers of the Legends," "A Novelist Looks at the Land," "The Celts and the Appalachians," "Magic Realism in Appalachia," "Nora Bonesteel and the Sight."

McCrumb, Sharyn. "Tom Dooley: Bound to Die." Blue Ridge Country, 1 Jan. 2009. Article and slideshow on the author's research for a book on the Tom Dooley/Dula legend. Available on magazine web site.

McDermitt, Barbara Rice Damron. A Comparison of a Scottish and American Storyteller and their Märchen Repertoires. Ph. D. Dissertation. School of Scottish Studies, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1986. 523 pp. 14 plates.

McDermitt, Barbara. "Storytelling and a Boy Named Jack." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 31, 1983, pp. 3-22. Cheryl Oxford's 1987 dissertation observes that this article is one of very few previous scholarly discussions of regional storytellers and their performance style. The article contains Ray Hicks's retlling of "The Doctor's Daughter or Jack and the Robbers," "The Cat and the Mouse," and "Lucky and Unlucky Jack."

MacDonald, Margaret Read, ed. Traditional Storytelling Today. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999. Contains essays "Jack Tales" and "Where Have All the Märchen Gone? Or, Don't They Tell Those Little Stories Any More?"

McGowan, Thomas. “Orville Hicks: Appalachian Storyteller” [Watauga Co., NC]. North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 45, Summer-Fall 1998, pp. 105-108.

McGowan, Thomas. “‘Sort of like an Appalachian Journal Editor’: Presenting and Playing with Identity in the Storytelling of Orville Hicks.” Appalachian Journal, vol. 29, Fall
2001-Winter 2002, pp. 164-179.

McMillon, Bobby. "The Old Man Was a King—Or Something." Southern Exposure, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 26-27. McMillon tells excerpts and discusses tales told to him by fellow furniture factory workers in NC. See article on McMillon by Kenkel, above.

McNeil, W. K. "Appalachian Folklore Scholarship." Appalachian Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 57.

McNeil, W. K., ed.  Appalachian Images in Folk and Popular Culture. 2nd ed. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989. xix, 348 pp.

McNeil, W. K., ed. Southern Folk Ballads. Vol. 1. American Folklife Series. Little Rock, AK: August House, 1987. Contains ballad variants of "Polly Vaughn."

McNeil, W. K. "Mountain Masculinity: Jokes Southern Mountain Men Tell Themselves," pp. 261-73. In Bronner, Simon J. (ed. and introd.). Manly Traditions: The Folk Roots of American Masculinities. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 2005. xxv, 383 pp.

McNeil, W. K. Review of Quare Do's In Appalachia: East Kentucky Legends and Memorats compiled by Berniece T. Hiser. Appalachian Journal, vol. 6, Autumn 1978.

McNeil, W. K. Review of Yarns and Tales From the Great Smokies: Some Narratives From the Southern Appalachians, ed. Joseph S. Hall. Appalachian Journal, vol. 8, Autumn 1980.

McNeil, W. K. "Where Have All the Märchen Gone? Or, Don't They Tell Those Little Stories Any More?" In Traditional Storytelling Today. Ed. Margaret Read MacDonald. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999, pp. 387-93.

Madden, David. "Let Me Tell You the Story: Transforming Oral Tradition." Appalachian Journal, vol. 7, Spring 1980.

Maguire, Jack. "Sounds and Sensibilities: Storytelling as an Educational Process." Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 1, Spring 1988, pp. 6-9. Available online through library services such as Project Muse. Includes mention of Appalachian Jack tales from a "predominantly oral culture" as one tradition that Maguire and many other storytellers prefer over literary tales which rely more on description and less on action. Good essay on educational value of oral storytelling in relation to communication skills, human interaction, and growth of the imagination.

Mauer, B. B. Mountain Heritage. Parsons, WV: McClain Printing, 1975. 352 pp. "The most complete one-volume work available on the Appalachian Cultural Heritage of West Virginians. The twelve chapters cover Man and the Appalachian Wilderness, Culture, Arts and Crafts, Language, Folklore and Literature, Family and Home, Music, Religion, Black Culture, The Mountain State, Songs, and Dances. The book is a ready resource for home, school, office and community" (publisher's description).

Media Working Group. Jack Tales: A Project of Media Working Group. Web site on a 1996-97 community oral history and performance project, Jack in the City, developed by the Media Working Group in Covington, KY. Includes some background essays, folktales, and samples of new writing about Jack and Molly/Mutsmag tales.

Miller, Danny, Sharon Hatfield, and Gurney Norman, eds. An American Vein: Critical Readings in Appalachian Literature, Athens: Ohio U Press, 2005. Twenty-nine essays by a variety of authors and critics.

Miller, Jim Wayne. "Appalachian Literature: At Home in this World." Article reprinted online.

Miller, Jim Wayne. "Appalachian Studies Hard and Soft: The Action Folk and the Creative People." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 9:2-3, Winter-Spring 1982, pp. 105-114. On history and study of folklore.

Miller, Jim Wayne. "Regions, Folklife, and Literary Criticism." Appalachian Journal, vol. 7, 1980, pp. 180-197.

Milnes, Gerald. Play of a Fiddle: Traditional Music, Dance, and Folklore in West Virginia. Lexington: Univ. Press of KY, 1999.

Milnes, Gerald C. Signs, Cures and Witchery: German Appalachian Folklore. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2007.

Milnes, Gerald. “West Virginia’s Omie Wise: A Folk Process Unveiled.” Appalachian Journal, vol. 22, Summer 1995, pp. 376-389.

Milspaw, Yvonne J. "Witchcraft in Appalachia: Protection for the Poor." Indiana Folklore, vol. 11, 1978, pp. 71-86.

Moerk, Alice. “The Flatwoods Monster: A Musical Drama: Creative Interpretation in Text Form.” Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness, vol. 8, 2002, pp. 31-32.

"'Monsters in America,' A Cryptozoological Map of the United States Featuring Legendary Creatures From Across America." Hog Island Press. "The Philadelphia-based Hog Island Press print shop has created Monsters in America, a cryptozoological map of the United States that features all sorts of legendary creatures from across America. The hand-drawn, hand-screened map is available to purchase from their online store" (description fom Laughing Squid web site, 2014). Silhouette drawings of monsters include the Mothman of WV, the Wampus Cat of E. Tenn., and Knobby (a bipedal, humanoid, Bigfoot-type creature in Cleveland County, TN).

Montell, William L. Ghosts Along the Cumberland: Deathlore in the Kentucky Foothills. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1975.

Mother Goose House. Built by George Stacy in Hazard, KY, 1935-40, a family home in the shape of Mother Goose. "The building is a concrete hint to the magic of imagination that lies within us all, just waiting for a chance to hatch out and become real just like the Mother Goose."

The Mountain Laurel. "An online journey into 'the Heart of the Blue Ridge Mountains.'" Since 1983, a site containing "history, genealogy from people searching for Blue Ridge Roots, recipes, crafts, interviews, some mighty tall tales, Mountain Backroad Tours to out of the way places, and much more" (Susan Thigpen, editor).

The Mountain Times. "Summer Times 2001," Boone, NC. Local Lore section contains articles "Jack Tales: Mountain Storytelling has Ancient Roots," "Mountain Masters" by Jim Thompson (on Ray Hicks and others), "Orville Hicks Keeps Alive Rich Tradition of Mountain Storytelling," "Cherokee Myths" by Scott Nicholson, "Spirits of the Mountains: High Country Haints, Legends, And Creepy Places" by Scott Nicholson. Also a number of articles on colorful characters, heroes, historical stories, myths, and folk beliefs.

Museum of the Cherokee Indian. Cherokee, NC. Web site has information on the museum archives, exhibits and collections, educational programs, events, gift shop.

Mushko, Becky. "Jack Tales and App Lit." Peevish Pen, 26 Oct. 2011. Blog entry on folktales at the Children's Literature Association Conference at Hollins University in June. Mushko says that she loved "the old-timey stories" as a kid but didn't know some of them were called Jack tales. She participated in a conference session with writer Lynn Salsi and Anne Chase (storyteller and Richard Chase's daughter). Photos from the conference and Jack Tale books include several images of Salsi's picture book Jack and the Fire Dragon and Mushko's Ferradiddledumday, and a photo of the three participants in Mushko's session. Another photo shows the following session on the Jack Tale Players, with Rex Stephenson and his performers "Emily Rose Tucker, Rachel Blankenship, and Kenneth C. Barron. Charles Vess turned up during this session and told about designing the Jack Tales Wall at Southwest Virginia Community College.


National Storytelling Network. Formerly the "National Association for the Preservation and Perpetuation of Storytelling (NAPPS), which as a result of explosive growth in the '80's, changed its name to The National Storytelling Association," and later split into NSN and the International Storytelling Center. Web site contains many links to story sources, members' web sites, and other storytelling resources and programs.

Neal, Brenda Acton. "Dan Leidig. Dousing for the Genuine: Teaching and Writing in Appalachia." Now and Then, vol. 9, Spring 1992, pp. 16-17, 32. ERIC Abstract: "Leidig discusses his English teaching career at Emory and Henry College (Virginia), where for many years he offered courses in poetry and folk literature. He believes these courses were influential with Appalachian students because they encouraged the connection between the study of literary works and student experience."

Neal, Jocelyn. "Ernest Stoneman's 1927 Session: Hillbilly Recordings of Gospel Hymns," pp. 187-214. In Wolfe, Charles K. and Ted Olson, Ted, eds. The Bristol Sessions: Writing About the Big Bang of Country Music. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005. ix, 296 pp.

Nickell, Joe. “The Flatwoods UFO Monster.” Chap. 46 in Real-Life X-Files: Investigating the Paranormal. Lexington: Univ. Press of KY, 2001. WV supernatural being.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. "AT 1535 in Beech Mountain, North Carolina." Book published by Nicolaisen, 1978-1983? 13 leaves (information from WorldCat). An article with the same title appeared in Scandinavian Yearbook of Folklore, vol. 36, 1980, pp. 99-106.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. "English Jack and American Jack." Midwest Journal of Language and Folklore 4, 1978, pp. 27-36. Discusses Jack's name as a general one synonymous with "a boy," and disagrees with Carriere's views of Jack as a humble mountain boy with a distinctive personality. Argues that Jack speaks the dialect of the storyteller, that language differences and regional details don't indicate that his character changed in America. Jack's actions are the same in English and American tales in spite of strange combinations of Old and New World details. His family circumstances are the same, whether only child or youngest of three brothers (with James and John in Britain, Will and Tom in America, Tom and James in at least one Scottish tale). Although Richard Chase tried to make Jack a more consistent character, examples from Joseph Jacobs and Jane Gentry (NC) show that the teller wasn't bothered by Jack being different characters in different tales. Chase's Jack is lazy, boastful, greedy, deceitful, and quick-witted at times, like clever culture heroes, while Maud Long's Jack is more virtuous and confident like European märchen heroes. Ray Hicks tries to smooth over the differences when details show that his Jack isn't really one person. In both old and new cultures he is "the same different Jack," doesn't need to acculturate because he varies. "He is the folktale hero par excellence of our western folk-narrative tradition" (32).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H.  "Why Tell Stories about Innocent, Persecuted Heroines?" Western Folklore, vol. 52, no. 1, Perspectives on the Innocent Persecuted Heroine in Fairy Tales, Jan. 1993, pp. 61-71. Available online through library services such as JSTOR. Nicolaisen analyzes the nature of the persecution and persecutors in about two dozen tales of heroines related to Cinderella: primary persecution in her home and secondary persecution in a later place of employment. The persecution at home is moral, caused by restrictions on the father's marriage choices left by the dead wife more than the lechery of the father figure. Or the father figure despises the girl for various reasons or tries to commit her to an undesirable marriage. Chase's Catskins is a mistreated orphan, with "a moral dimension...added to her physical persecution when she foolishly decides to wear the wedding dress of the man's dead wife" (65). With supernatural help or just her own resourcefulness, the heroine in disguise works her way through her period of alternating disgrace and triumph, and brings about her marriage to the prince. "Persecuted she may be, weak and resourceless she is not. Thus these tales, despite their unpromising beginnings, turn out to be painfully-glorious celebrations of the indomitable power and spirit of womanhood" (69). It's not just the happy marriage chosen by the heroine that makes these tales popular, but the way the social order is restored at the end; the heroine loses and is restored, "mainly through her own initiative," to "her rightful place in the world." Even in a less hierarchical world "we still enjoy listening to the adventures of Cap o' Rushes...and other members of their sisterhood, making their plight and their new-found self-reliance and strength our own" (70).

Norman, Gurney. Ancient Creek: A Folktale. Lexington, KY: Old Cove Press, 2012. 156 pp. Contents: "Ancient Creek" by Gurney Norman, "Living into the Land" by Jim Wayne Miller, "'I’m Jack!'" by Kevin I. Eyster, "Reading Ancient Creek" by Annalucia Accardo, "October 30, 1975" by Dee Davis, "The Story of Ancient Creek" by Gurney Norman. Miller argues that traditions involve handing down, not remaining static or antiquarian; Norman's story is both regional and universal in using the familar Jack tale tradition while changing it to parody and critique social institutions. Norman's "Ancient Creek" tale of social satire is published with these background essays. An earlier, oral version was recorded by Norman and Si Kahn in 1976 for June Appal Recordings (Whitesburg, KY). “His novella-length folktale tells the story of resistance among ‘the folks’ against an evil King. The tale describes a mythic ‘hill domain’ that has been exploited by the forces of a colonizing empire. The hero Jack is the fugitive leader of the people’s revolt and the nemesis of the King. Wounded survivors of the revolution find solace and healing on Ancient Creek where old Aunt Haze is the guiding spirit.” A digitally remastered CD of the 1975 spoken-word album is being published by June Appal Recordings. See article about this book by Chaney, above.

North Carolina Folk Heritage Award: Bertie Dickens, Emma Dupree, the Five Royales, Leonard Glenn, Ray Hicks, Algia Mae Hinton, A. C. Overton, Laughlin Shaw. Raleigh: North Carolina Arts Council, 1992. 16 pp.

North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, Sept. 1978, pp. 51-143, a special issue on Jack Tales. Ed. Thomas McGowan. For details, see entries under Charles T. Davis, C. Paige Gutierrez, W. H. Ward on this page, and McGowan, "Four Beech Mountain Tales" at Appalachian Folktales in General Collections, Journals and Web Sites.


O'Connell, Barry. "Whose Land and Music Shall Ours Be? Reflections on the History of Protest in the Southern Mountains." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 12:1, Fall 1984, pp. 18-30.

The Ohio State University. Center for Folklore Studies. An interdisciplinary academic degree-granting program.

Old Handed Down Tales has picture of Ray Hicks with background on Richard Chase and Jack Tales. Web pages of Appalachian Cultural Museum, Appalachian State Univ., 2001.

Olson, Ted. "Appalachian Folklore." Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music and Art. Ed. Charlie T. McCormick and Kim Kennedy White. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011. Includes sections on "Myths, Legends, and Folktales" and "Songs, Ballads, and Music" (pp. 105-7) as well as other topics and a bibliography.

Olson, Ted. "A Ballad Collector Extraordinaire Comes to the Mountains." Appalachian Heritage, vol. 19:1, Winter1991, pp. 20-26. Discusses Cecil Sharp.

Olson, Ted. "Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition." Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, vol. 5, 1993, pp. 84-93. "Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies" (ERIC item EJ480072). See AppLit page on Cherokee legend The Animal Ball Game.

Olson, Ted and Anthony P. Cavender, eds. A Tennessee Folklore Sampler: Selections from the Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, 1935-2009. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 2009. Foreword by William Ferris.

"Once Upon a Time: A Collection of Young People's Folklore." North Carolina Folklore, vol. 20, 1972, pp. 108-14.

Oral Traditions: Swapping Stories. The focus is on Louisiana folklore, not Appalachia, but this site, which includes John Henry and Virginia Hamilton as additional examples, provides detailed models of lesson plans for examining oral storytelling traditions, tall tales, urban legends, regional folk heroes, family stories, and media celebrities, linked with state standards of learning. For English Language Arts and Social Studies, grades 4-8.

Ord, Priscilla, ed. "Special Section: Folklore." Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, Summer 1981, pp. 11-33. Includes both folklore for children and folklore of children. (note by Linnea Hendrickson).

Orr, Joan Green, ed. Fading Voices. Special edition of the Journal of Cherokee Studies, vol. 14, 1991.

Owens, Guy. "The Use of Folklore in Fiction." North Carolina Folklore, vol. 19, 1971, pp. 73-79.

Owens, William T. "Country Roads, Hollers, Coal Towns, and Much More: A Teacher's Guide to Teaching about Appalachia." The Social Studies, vol. 91, July 2000, pp.178+. After finding nothing on the region in a teacher supply story in an Appalachian city, Owens collected material on southern Appalachia and encourages teachers everywhere to include it in their multicultural studies. The article summarizes background on geography, economy, language, and methods for avoiding stereotyping and inaccuracy. Owens recommends Ashpet and other literature for introducing Appalachian culture in the classroom. The long bibliography covers many topics, giving grade levels recommended for literature. Full text (with some typos) accessed 1/16/04 through Academic Index ASAP.

Oxford, Cheryl Lynne. "They Call Him 'Lucky Jack': Three Performance-Centered Case Studies of Storytelling in Watauga County, North Carolina." Ph.D. Dissertation. Northwestern University, 1987. Abstract available online in DAI, 48, no. 08A, 1987, 2135. Oxford studied Marshall Ward (telling "Jack in the Lions' Den" in his home in Banner Elk four months before he died on Nov. 11, 1981), Stanley Hicks (telling "Jack and the Bull") and Ray Hicks (telling three Jack tales; Chapter V is reprinted in "The Storyteller as Shaman" - see Hicks bibliography in this web site). "Within the boundaries of one mountain county and one märchen cycle, these regional raconteurs demonstrate remarkably different storytelling styles. The challenge posed for this ethnographic study has been to capture in print the performance artistry of these stellar storytellers." Outlines previous research on NC Jack tales, and "the development of the performance-centered approach to folkloristics, beginning in 1923." Chapter 2 notes that "The three Jack-tellers from western North Carolina frame their performances with a variety of devices, including appeals to tradition, disclaimers of performance ability, and distancing laughter to mark the conclusion of tales," although Ray Hicks' style lacks "formal framing signals. His Jack Tales often emerge out of autobiographical reflections and then blend back into continuing accounts of his own life saga" (pp. 34-35). Oxford was most influenced by Richard Dorson, Ruth Fennegan, Linda Dégh, Henry Glassie, Dell Hymes, Roger Abrahams, Richard Bauman, and Dan Ben-Amos in developing her "performance approach to folkloristics." Chapter 3 observes that "Marshall Ward did more than any other regional folk artist to insure the survival of the hardy Jack cycle" (see article  It is a sad irony, however, that this preservation-minded storyteller evidently failed to tell "Jack in the Lion's Den" for inclusion in Richard Chase's print collection. Consequently, this tale does not seem to have been preserved in the Beech Mountain oral tradition, a tradition which inevitably interfaces with literacy." Oxford quotes Walter Ong on the adaptability of literacy and its ability to restore the memory of the oral antecedents it also consumes, as her "work of literacy attempts to restore and preserve the memory of Marshall Ward and his oral storytelling hertiage" (pp. 41-42). See also Cheryl Oxford Collection in Folklore Archive Materials.

Oyate Publications. Provides guidelines for evaluating depictions of Native American peoples and traditions, with evaluations of individual books.


Painter, Helen W. "Richard Chase: Mountain Folklorist and Storyteller." Elementary Education, vol. 40, November 1963, pp. 677-86. Reports on Chase's folktales, especially the Jack tales (citation from Linnea Hendrickson). See also AppLit's Chase bibliography.

Parker, Kathy. "Building the Digital Library of Appalachia." Virginia Libraries, vol. 51, Jan./Feb./Mar. 2005. See also Pauley, below.

Parris, John A. These Storied Mountains. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times Pub., 1972.

Pauley, Andrew. "The Collective Memory of the Digital Library of Appalachia." Virginia Libraries, vol. 53, Jan./Feb./Mar. 2007. See also K. Parker, above.

Pearce, James T. "Folk Tales of the Southern Poor-White, 1820-1860." The Journal of American Folklore, vol. 63, No. 250, Oct.-Dec. 1950, pp. 398-412. Includes discussion of Davy Crockett and other heroes. Crockett's wife and mother are mentioned in an acknowledgement that some heroic women appear in folktales but they are less believable. Jack Tales are discussed as fairy tales, which were mostly for children and appear in purest form in NC. The Bell Witch of Tennessee is Pearce's main example of ghost tales. Tall tales such as hunting tales from North Carolina are mentioned.

Penrod, James H. "Harden Taliaferro, Folk Humorist of North Carolina." Midwest Folklore, vol. 6.3, 1956, pp. 147-153. See also Penrod essay in book by Inge, above.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr. "The Americanization of John Egerton and Aunt Arie." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 114, Summer 1984, pp. 437-441.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr. "Is Old Jack Really Richard Chase?" Journal of Folklore Research, vol. 38, 2001, pp. 111-38. Also in Perspectives on the Jack Tales and other North American Märchen. Bloomington, IN: Folklore Institute/Indiana University, Bloomington, 2001, pp. 111-38. Analyzes Chase's transmission of oral tales he collected and the extent to which his versions reflect his own character. Abstract of article at this link. See also Perdue's Outwitting the Devil in Appalachian Folktale Collections bibliography.

Prajznerova, Katerina. Cultural Intermarriage in Southern Appalachia: Cherokee Elements in Four Selected Novels by Lee Smith. Taylor & Francis, 2003. "Examining four of Lee Smith's mountain novels from the point of view of cultural anthropology, this study shows that fragments of the Cherokee heritage resonate in her work. These elements include connections with the Cherokee beliefs regarding medicinal plants and spirit animals, Cherokee stories about the Daughter of the Sun, the Corn Woman, the Spear Finger, the Raven Mocker, the Little People and the booger men; the Cherokee concept of witchcraft; and the social position of Cherokee women."

Price, Charles Edwin. A Student Guide to Collecting Folklore. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press, 1996. 30 pp. See cover and description at Overmountain Press.


Raymond, Tom (photographer). Timeless Voices: Images of the National Storytelling Festival. Jonesborough, Tenn.: National Storytelling Network, 1997. 48 pp., chiefly color illus.

Reese, Jay Robert. "Goals for the Collection and Use of Appalachian Oral Materials in the 1980s," pp. 230-235. In Somerville, Wilson, ed. Appalachia/America: Proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian Studies Conference. Johnson City, TN: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1981.

Rehder, John B. Appalachian Folkways. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. "In Appalachian Folkways, geographer John B. Rehder offers an account of Southern Appalachia and its cultural milieu. Rehder, who has spent thirty years studying the region, offers a nuanced depiction of Southern Appalachia's social and cultural identity, from architecture and traditional livelihoods to beliefs and art. The book opens with an expert consideration of the Southern Appalachian landscape, defined by mountains, rocky soil, thick forests, and plentiful streams. While these features have shaped the inhabitants of the region, Rehder notes, Appalachians have also shaped their environment, and he goes on to explore the human influence on the landscape."

Renner, Craig J. "America's Jack: The Trickster Hero of Our Shy Tradition." The World & I:  The Magazine for Lifelong Learning, Sept. 1998, pp224-31. Contains brief history of Jack tales in Europe and America, citing mainly Lindahl and Perdue. Includes two pictures of Ferrum College Jack Tale Players. Full text (without pictures) accessed through Academic Index ASAP 1/15/04.

Reynolds, David. "Customary Ritual and Male Rites of Passage in Lee Smith's Oral History." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 42:2, Summer-Fall 1995, pp. 113-22.

Richards, Bill. "Walking Catfish & Other Whoppers: The Walking Catfish and Other Whoppers From Tennessee." The Washington Post, 10 Oct. 1977, Final Edition: Style C1. Full text accessed through Lexis-Nexis 5/7/07. About the fifth Annual National Storytelling Festival at Jonesborough, TN and storytellers Doc McConnell, Kathryn Windham, Jackie Torrence, and 73-year-old Richard Chase. Includes comments on Jack Tales and African American tales.

Riddles. See AppLit page Appalachian Riddles with bibliography and examples, including sources on riddles in folktales and "The Riddle Song."

Ritchie, Jean. See interview with Rogers, Sally below.

Roadside Theater. "About Mountain Tales and Music," with photos, letters, videos, reviews, and a study guide attached, is an Appalshop page telling about Roadside Theater's first play, which toured to schools, churches, community centers, and outdoor sites beginning in 1975. It was "a production of Jack and Mutsmeg stories originally from the British Isles and the ballads and fiddle tunes that had been passed down from generation to generation in the Appalachian Mountains since the late 1700s." The study guide says, "There are hundreds of Jack Tales. An interesting variation are the Muttsmeg Tales, a female version of Jack." One of the links on this page is to a video of a program at the Kentucky governor's mansion in which Ron Short gives a short history of Appalachia going back nearly a billion years, while playing the fiddle, and he and others tell "Big Jack and Little Jack."

Roadside Theater. You and Your Community's Story. Whitesburg, KY: Roadside Theater, 1995. Booklet on using story circles and oral histories.

Roberts, Leonard. "Additional Exaggerations from East Kentucky." Midwest Folklore, vol. 2.3, 1952, pp. 163-66.

Roberts, Leonard. "The Cante Fable in Eastern Kentucky." Midwest Folklore, vol. 6.2, 1956, pp. 69-88.

Roberts, Leonard. "Curious Legends of the Kentucky Mountains." Western Folklore, vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 1957, pp. 48-51.

Roberts, Leonard, and Edith Roberts. "Games to Play." Literature of Folklore, 795: 7. Bowling Green, KY: s.n, 1963. Microfilm. Reprinted from Kentucky Folklore Record, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1963).

Rogers, Sally. "Sowing Seeds of Love for Traditional Music: An Interview with Jean Ritchie." From Winter 2003 issue of Pass It On! The Journal of The Children's Music Network. Reprinted in network's web site, with photos. Includes discussion of ballad-singing and storytelling in Ritchie's family.

Roote, Robert. "The Historical Events Behind the Celebrated Ballad 'Naomi Wise.'" North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 32, Fall-Winter 1984, pp. 70-81. Discussion of historical background of the legend of "Poor Naomi" or "Omie Wise," which folklorist Arthur Palmer Hudson had called "North Carolina's 'principal contribution to American folksong,'" in the "Murdered Girl" tradition (p. 70). A girl named Omia Wise was murdered in Randolph County in 1807, and landmarks in Randleman are named Naomi, although details of her murder are uncertain. In an 1822 account, Naomi Wise was an orphan who was drowned in Deep River by a man when she tried to make him keep his promise of marriage.

Roseberry, Helen and Jane Shook, ed. Remembrance, Reunion and Revival: Celebrating a Decade of Appalachian Studies. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium P, 1988. 128 pp.

Rosenberg, Teya. "We Do Have Jack: Considering Contexts for the Jack Series by Andy Jones and Darka Erdelji." Keynote Address at 9th Raddall Symposium, Acadia University, July 2015, available in Rosenberg discussed four Newfoundland Jack Tale books by Andy Jones and Darka Erdelji at length with analysis of the regional, national and international contexts of folktales and illustration. See "Some Folktales from Outside Appalachia" for more on these Newfoundland tales and a puppet show adaptation of one of the Jack tales, "The Queen of Paradise's Garden."

Ross, Charlotte. T., ed. Bibliography of Southern Appalachia. Boone, NC: The Appalachian Consortium Press, 1976. Reviewed by Tom McGowan in Appalachian Journal, vol. 4, Spring/Summer 1977.

Rucker, James "Sparky." "The Story of the 'Ballad of Tom Dooley.'" Appalachian Heritage, Winter 2008. Available online. Includes lyrics of the ballad from 1927.


Sawin, Patricia. Listening for a Life: A Dialogic Ethnography of Bessie Eldreth through Her Songs and Stories. Logan, UT: Utah State UP, 2004. xiv, 254 pp. Contents: Introduction: Dialogism and Subjectivity / "That Was Before I Ever Left Home": Complex Accounts of a Simple Childhood / "If You Had to Work as Hard as I Did, It Would Kill You": Work, Narrative, and Self-Definition / "I Said, 'Don't You Do It'': Tracing Development as an Empowered Speaker through Reported Speech in Narrative / "He Never Did Say Anything About My Dreams That Would Worry Me After That": Negotiating Gender and Power in Ghost Stories / "I'm a Bad One to Go Pulling Jokes on People": Practical Joking as a Problematic Vehicle for Oppositional Self-Definition / "My Singing Is My Life": Repertoire and Performance. Also Indiana Univ. diss. 1993. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54:9, Mar. 1994, 3551A.

Scancarelli, Janine. "Cherokee Tales of the Supernatural." Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, vol. 21, 1996, pp.143-158. Analyzes the verbal art of one type of Cherokee storytelling, including differences between supernatural tales and other tales. In a collection of academic papers about Native American languages.  

Schmidt, Gary. "Appalachian Spring." The Five Owls, May/June 1991, pp. 107-9.

Schmid, Vernon. Cherokee Myth and Legend: An Interpretation. West Conshohocken, PA: Infinity Pub., 2006.

Schores, Daniel. "Riddle Me a Riddle: The Southern Tradition of Riddles." Appalachian Heritage: A Magazine of Southern Appalachian Life & Culture, vol. 17:2, Spring 1989, pp. 58-63.

Schores, Daniel M.  "Southern Appalachian Folk Narratives: A Structural and Functional Analysis." Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, vol. 51, 1985, pp. 48-54.

Sergent, Donnie, Jr., and Jeff Wamsley. Mothman: The Facts Behind the Legend. Point Pleasant, WV: Mothman Lives Publishing, 2001. 164 pp. About 1960s sightings of WV winged supernatural creature.

Shackelford, Laurel, and Beill Weinberg. Our Appalachia: An Oral History. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.

Sherman, Sharon. Documenting Ourselves: Film, Video and Culture. Lexington: Univ. of Kentucky Press, 1997. By a folklorist in Oregon. Discusses documentary film and folklore.

Sheviak, Margaret R., and Merrilee Anderson. "American 'Fake' Folk Heroes." Elementary Education, vol. 46, March 1969, pp. 273-78. Explores the controversy surrounding American folk heroes such as Paul Bunyan, Pecos Bill, and Joe Magarac. Are they folklore or "fakelore"? (note by Linnea Hendrickson).

Shillingsburg, Miriam J. "William Gilmore Simms and the Myth of Appalachia." Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review, vol. 6, 1979, pp. 111-19.

Sing Down the Moon: Appalachian Wonder Tales. Commissioned and first produced at Theater of the First Amendment. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 2000. Conceived by Mary Hall Surface (from KY) and David Maddox (from NC). Written by Mary Hall Surface. Lyrics by Mary Hall Surface and David Maddox. Music by David Maddox. GMU Study Guides for grades 3-12 on Appalachian Wonder Tales by Surface and Maddox at this link. Published by Dramatic Publishing (Woodstock, IL), 2002. Play with music based on Appalachian folktales and songs, including also "Jack of Hearts and King Marock," "Jack's First Job," "Jack and the Wonder Beans," "The Sow and her Three Pigs," and "The Enchanted Tree." Web pages include photos, authors' notes. Also produced as set of 2 CDs. Photos and background on how the retellings were developed at Sing Down the Moon. Picture, summary of each tale and downloadable script excerpts at Dramatic Publishing Online Catalog. Also produced at Theater at Lime Kiln (Lexington, Virginia, July 2005).

Singer, Eliot A. "Fakelore, Multiculturalism, and the Ethics of Children's Literature." Essay published online at Michigan State University gives many examples of children's books that distort and misrepresent tales from the oral tradition, especially Native American tales. Singer is critical of Terri Cohlene, of Susan Roth, and of Joseph Bruchac (for over-emphasizing the didactic nature of tales). But he says Gayle Ross," an active storyteller inside and outside the Cherokee community, is a thoroughly modern Indian, yet she, too, respects tradition. Instead of the usual authorial procedure of taking an old version as a starting point on which to 'improve,' she goes back to Mooney's (1900) classic collection to check the extent to which the stories as she has learned and tells them have maintained their integrity." Singer advocates using folktale collections with children that have more authentic versions of tales than most picture books.

Sitton, Thad. "The Rise of Cultural Journalism." Journal of Popular Culture, vol. 17:2, Fall 1983, pp. 88-99. Discusses Foxfire, folk history, and folk literature in relation to cultural journalism.

Smith, Betty N. Jane Hicks Gentry: A Singer Among Singers. Lexington: Univ. Press of KY, 1998. Foreword by Cecilia Conway. 226 pp. Includes 14 Jack tales, 71 songs (most of them recorded by British folklorist Cecil Sharp, whose manuscripts were re-analyzed), a discography of Gentry's daughter Maud Long, photographs, and discussion of Gentry's music, storytelling, and life (1863-1925). Reviewed by James Porter in Review of Folklore, vol. 113, Apr. 2002, pp.107+. Also reviewed by Chris Goertzen in Notes, vol. 56, Mar. 2000, p. 738.

Smith, Jimmy Neil. “Storytelling Collection Comes to the Library of Congress.” Folklife Center News (Library of Congress), vol. 23, no. 3, Summer 2001, pp. 3-5. From Jonesborough, TN National Storytelling Festival, founded 1973.

Smith, Jo Sherrin. "Two Legends from Western North Carolina." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 21, 1973, pp. 35-36.

Smith, Paul and J. D. A. Widdowson. "Herbert Halpert, 1911-2000." Folklore, vol. 112, Oct. 2001, p. 211. Tribute to folklorist Halpert and his contributions to documentation and fieldwork, including work on Jack tales from Appalachia, Ozarks, and Newfoundland.

Siporin, Steve. American Folk Masters. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1992. Includes storytellers.

Sobol, Joseph Daniel. Everyman and Jack: The Storytelling of Donald Davis. M. A. Thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1987.

Sobol, Joseph Daniel. "Growing Up with Jack in Haywood County: The Background and Development of Donald Davis's Storytelling." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. XLI, Summer-Fall 1994, pp. 80-113.

Sobol, Joseph. “Jack of a Thousand Faces: The Jack Tales as an Appalachian Hero Cycle.” North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 39:2, 1992, pp. 77-108.

Sobol, Joseph Daniel. Jonesborough Days: The National Storytelling Festival and the Contemporary Storytelling Revival Movement in America. 2 vols. Ph.D. Diss. (Performance Studies). Northwestern Univ., 1994.

Sobol, Joseph Daniel. The Storytellers' Journey: An American Revival. Champaign: Univ. of IL Press, 1999. 210 pp. A comprehensive analysis of storytelling traditions and particular tales across North America, by a noted folklorist, musician, and storyteller, with a bibliography. Analyzes social and cultural influences that revived storytelling in the 1960s. Reviewed in an interesting article by Anne Lundin in Library Quarterly, vol. 70, Jan. 2000, p. 167. Lundin notes that the role of librarians in promoting storytelling for children and adults through the twentieth century also needs to be told in much more detail. Sobol's book received an Anne Izard Storytellers' Choice Award in 2000.

Sobol, Joseph. "’Whistlin’ Towards the Devil’s House’: Poetic Transformations and Natural Metaphysics in an Appalachian Folktale Performance." Oral Tradition, vol. 21, no. 1, 2006. Downloadable at Oral Tradition web site. Center for Studies in Oral Tradition. Columbia, MO. With audio recordings made at Ray Hicks's home in 1985. "This study centers on a performance of one of Hicks’s signature tales, 'Wicked John and the Devil."

Solieri, Thomas Joseph. "A Concept of Costume Designs for the Maryland Theatre for Children's Productions of Step on a Crack and The Jack Tales." M. A. Thesis. University of Maryland, 1978.

"Spinning Yarns that Weave Our Cultures Together" and "Seven Hours of Storytelling—I Swear It!" Blue Ridge Folklife Festival program, 28 Oct 1995. Articles on facing pages introduce storytelling as well as storytellers and ballad singers appearing at the 1995 folklife festival at Ferrum College, VA. "Spinning Yarns" gives background on Norman Kennedy (originally from Scotland); Bobby McMillon, with family history in the Blue Ridge Mountains of NC that includes a cousin made famous in the "Tom Dooley" song and telling "true Jack Tales: and "booger tales"; and Jimmy Costa from southern WV. Also appearing on the storytelling stage were Ray and Orville Hicks of NC, Daniel Womack from Pittsylvania County, George Reynolds from Hillsville, and a group of Virginia men with "long ties to stock car racing in the region." These pages also contain the article "For Twenty Years, They've Been Telling Tales: The Jack Tale Players" (see AppLit bibliography Dramas and Tales by R. Rex Stephenson). Another short article announcing these appearances is "Get Set for Tall Tales, Stories at Festival." The Franklin News-Post [Rocky Mount, VA], Blue Ridge Folklife Festival special section, 25 Oct. 1995, p. 5 and "Jack Tale Players Mark 20th Anniversary" on p. 6.

Stadter, Philip (Univ. of NC, Chapel Hill). "Herodotus and the North Carolina Oral Narrative Tradition." Histos, vol. 1, 1997. Detailed scholarly article with extensive footnotes, in an electronic journal of ancient historiography, comparing oral storytelling of Herodotus and Beech Mountain Hicks-Harmon family and Donald Davis. Contains full transcript of "Jack and the Three Steers" from recording Ray Hicks Telling Four Traditional "Jack Tales." Comments, by John Marincola, includes comparison of Jack with Odysseus.

Starnes, Bobby Ann (preface); and Eliot Wigginton (ed.). A Foxfire Christmas. Chapel Hill, NC: U of North Carolina P, 1996. ix, 144 pp.

Stephenson, R. Rex. See AppLit's bibliography Dramas and Tales by R. Rex Stephenson.

Still, James. The Wolfpen Notebooks: A Record of Appalachian Life. Lexington, UP of Kentucky, 1991. Portions were originally published in Foxfire, Fall 1988. Compilation of sayings, quotations, tidbits of folklore, and a few yarns and tales from Still's collection of more than twenty notebooks, where he recorded many aspects of the daily lives and culture of his neighbors in rural Knott County, Kentucky, after he settled there in 1931. Foreword by Eliot Wigginton, the North Georgia English teacher whose students collected material for Foxfire and edited Still's notes when he consented to publish them, with reservations about losing the context and oral flavor of the material. Includes interview of Still by Wigginton's student Laura Lee, and photographs of Still, his notebooks, and his log house in the woods. Also reprints a James Still bibliography by William Terrell Cornett, the poem "Heritage," and Still's short story "I Love My Rooster" (the "Low Glory" chapter in Sporty Creek). See more on Still's works in AppLit bibliography and study guide.

Still Making Moonshine: A Documentary Film. DVD. Highproof Films, 2007. "Documentary filmmaker Kelly L. Riley returns to the mountains of North Carolina and discovers more than just whiskey being bootlegged. Jim Tom Hedrick smiths a still from a roll of copper at his creek-side camp. In a dry county thick with prying eyes and tee-totalers, Jim Tom slips around making a run of moonshine. Jerry Jumper and William Bird explain how the old spirit allies of the Cherokee, 'The Little People,' still live in the nearby woods and streams. As a feature length sequel to the short documentary 'Moonshine,' this film is a drunken tale of lost language, severed limbs, buried shine and blackouts. Have a taste of bootleg whiskey and Jesus, '140 proof.'"

Stone, Kay F. "Feminist Approaches to the Interpretation of Fairy Tales." Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: Univ. of PA Press, 1986, pp. 229-236. Compares several different views of male and female roles in fairy tales from scholarship of the 1950s to 1980s. Stone mentions that 20th-century collections of Anglo-American tales containing less passive heroines are often ignored in feminist studies, citing several Appalachian and Ozark sources, as well as Northeastern American and Canadian collections. Reprinted with other essays in Stone, Kay F. Some Day Your Witch Will Come. Series in fairy-tale studies. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2008.

Stone, Kay F. "Oral Narration in Contemporary North America." Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: Univ. of PA Press, 1986, pp. 13-31. Argues that scholars of fairy tales should consider oral storytelling traditions as well as fixed written texts. Surveys four important folklore studies on "literary and verbal artistry of traditional tales and tellers" (Max LÜthi, Linda Dégh, Albert Lord, Richard Bauman), and then discusses the development of three types of modern North American tale-telling and discusses examples of practitioners of each one: (1) Those brought up with traditional oral storytelling (such as Appalachians Ray Hicks and Donald Davis) view stories as a natural part of conversation shared by all ages together in their families and communities, absorbing stories, their deeper meanings, and ways of developing individual "verbal creativity" gradually throughout life. Men from this tradition are more likely to tell tales in public, although women also have significant roles in passing on stories. (2) Nontraditional urban storytelling developed in libraries and schools since the late nineteenth century, learned consciously and practiced predominantly by women as educators of the young, with their own methods of performing read or memorized stories in more restricted, less spontaneous contexts. Laura Simms is a library storyteller who began a storytelling center in Oneonta, NY. (3) Neo-traditional tale-telling, combining aspects of the other two types, developed as a revival of more spontaneous storytelling methods since the late 1960s. Jay O'Callahan (of Mass.) performs original stories he creates based on old models, telling to large public audiences as well as participating in more intimate groups of tellers and listeners. Although the relationship between oral teller and community is different for each of these types, they all "offer us new perspective on Märchen as verbal art, as an expression of the people. They provide us with the timeless literary artistry of the wonder tale" (p. 28). Stone analyzes oral storytelling in more depth in her later book Burning Brightly: New Light on Old Tales Told Today (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 1998). Reprinted with other essays in Stone, Kay F. Some Day Your Witch Will Come. Series in fairy-tale studies. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2008.

Stone, Kay. "Things Walt Disney Never Told Us." The Journal of American Folklore, vol. 88, No. 347, Women and Folklore, Jan.-Mar. 1975, pp. 42-50. Available online through JSTOR. Stone compared male and female roles in European and American collections of folktales, and interviewed 40 North American women who recall being influenced by traditional fairy tales with passive heroines. Among more "aggressive" and "violent" Anglo-American heroines, she mentions "Polly, Nancy, and Muncimeg," collected by Leonard Roberts. He "introduces a number of Kentucky heroines who do not fit the European stereotypes." Randolph's Ozark and Roberts' Appalachian versions of "Cinderella" "would have made Disney's hair curl" (45). "We see . . . what we have lost by taking our heroines from Grimm and Disney rather than from the tales of our own heritage" (49). Stone observes that tales such as "Mally Whuppee" and "Muncimeg" do not contain "the stereotyped conflict between the passive, beautiful woman and the aggressive, ugly one," that "most of the active heroines are not even described in terms of their natural attributes. . . . Like heroes, they are judged by their actions. Though most do marry, their weddings are no more central to the tale than is the concluding marriage of most heroes. Some husbands are even won as passive prizes, in the same way that princesses are won by heroes in many tales. Most important, active heroines are not victims of hostile forces beyond their control but are, instead, challengers who confront the world rather than waiting for success to fall at their pretty feet. Unfortunately, heroines of this sort are not numerous in oral tales, and do not exist at all in any of the Grimm tales or the [pre-1975] Disney films" (46). Reprinted with other essays in Stone, Kay F. Some Day Your Witch Will Come. Series in fairy-tale studies. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2008.

Stone, Kay F. and Donald Davis. "To Ease the Heart: Traditional Storytelling." The National Storytelling Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, Winter 1984.

Storytellers: Native American Authors Online: Cherokee/Tsalagi. Index complied by Karen M. Strom. Includes many links to pages for each author/storyteller.

Storytelling of the North Carolina Native Americans. The Cherokee section of this web site has a Real Video telling of "The Rattlesnake Story" by storyteller Eagle Woman.

Straw, Richard A. (ed. and introd.); and H. Tyler Blethen (ed.). High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place. Urbana, IL: U of Illinois P, 2004. vii, 240 pp. Includes sections on music, religion,

Swortzell, Lowell. Cinderella: The World’s Favorite Fairy Tale. Charlottesville, VA: New Plays Inc., 1992. Contains an excellent introduction to fairy tales and theatre, and a Multicultural Study Guide by Nancy Swortzell with exercises involving drama and cultural traditions. The script combines Cinderella tales from France, China, Russia, and the Micmac tribe of North America. 


"Tall Tales from West Virginia's Top 'Liars'." All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Saturday, May 27, 2006. Story on WV Liars Contest features storytellers and judges Bill Lepp and Bonnie Collins.  Audio and photos available on web page, including tales told by Lepp and Collins.

Tate, J. R. Walkin' with the Ghost Whisperers: Lore and Legends of the Appalachian Trail. Philadelphia: Xlibris (self-publishing service), 2005.

Taylor, Celia Blackmon (1935- ). "Cherokee and Creek Folklore Elements in the Uncle Remus Stories: A Comparison of the Tales by Joel Chandler Harris and Legends of the Southeast." M. A. English thesis, 1959. University not given in WorldCat.

Taylor, Elizabeth Mary. "Self and Story in Appalachian Coal Mining Communities." Univ. of Michigan diss. Dissertation Abstracts International, vol. 53:5, Nov. 1992, 1571A-72A.

Teaford, Judy.  "Contemporary Appalachian Picture Books."  M. A. Thesis.  Marshall Univ. Graduate College, 1998.

Teaford, Judy.  "The Unexamined Shadow? Not in Appalachian Picture Books!" Paper presented at Appalachian Studies Association Conference, Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY, March 30, 2003. Examines Jungian archetypes in Appalachian picture books, with focus on variants of "Wicked Jack/John and the Devil" and "Tailypo." Abstract in AppLit

Teuton, Sean. "Talking Animals: An Interview with Murv Jacob." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, vol. 26:2, 2002, pp. 135-50. Discusses folk narrative, animal tale, folk dance, treatment of Cherokee Indians in painting by Murv Jacob.

Telling Tales Teacher's Guide. Downloadable pdf files: Part One (with Table of Contents), Part Two.  Gives summaries of tales retold for KY Educational TV series, with background, discussion questions, and activities.

Tending the Commons: Folklife and Landscape in Southern West Virginia "incorporates 679 excerpts from original sound recordings and 1,256 photographs from the American Folklife Center's Coal River Folklife Project (1992-99) documenting traditional uses of the mountains in Southern West Virginia's Big Coal River Valley. . . . The online collection includes extensive interviews on native forest species and the seasonal round of traditional harvesting (including spring greens; summer berries and fish; and fall nuts, roots such as ginseng, fruits, and game) and documents community cultural events such as storytelling, baptisms in the river, cemetery customs, and the spring "ramp" feasts using the wild leek native to the region. Interpretive texts outline the social, historical, economic, environmental, and cultural contexts of community life, while a series of maps and a diagram depicting the seasonal round of community activities provide special access to collection materials. " Detailed subject listing of the contents included. American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.

Thacker, Larry. Mountain Mysteries: The Mystic Traditions of Appalachia. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press, 2007. Thacker "presents the untold and ignored stories of the paranormal in Appalachia," including efforts to dispel urban myths and stories about Oak Ridge, TN and UFOs, and The Appalachian Sasquatch.

Thompson, Stith. Motif Index of Folk Literature. Bloomington: Indiana U Press, 1989.

Tillotson, Susan.  "A Uniquely American Hero: Jack and His Place in the Folktale Tradition." Several web pages by a Virginia Tech student, summarizing research on the history of folktales and Jack Tales, with several original drawings.

Tony Beaver. Section in West Virginia's Appalachian Music and Literature teaching unit, with a variety of teaching materials on tall tale hero Tony Beaver, including audio readings and discussion questions on Tony, Paul Bunyan, and John Henry. (These pages formerly on West Virginia World School web site, now reprinted in AppLit.).

Torrence, Jackie. Jackie Torrence Presents Her Secrets for Storytelling. Videocassette. North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates, 1996. 56 min.

Torrence, Jackie. [Jackie Torrence Long Interview No. 69] [Digital Video Tape]. Salisbury, NC.: [Cotsen Storyteling Project], 1999. "Torrence talks about her beginnings as a storyteller in a library. She also recounts memories of her childhood and family, and about becoming a professional storyteller who has visited all 50 states." In Long Interview No. 70, "Torrence leads Milbre and Berkley through her home town of Salisbury, passing her college and church." In Long Interview No. 71, "Torrence discusses her experience in the hospital and of her storytelling abroad, where she first learned, 'Jack Goes to Hell' from a group of street tellers in London." In Long Interview No. 72, "Torrence talks about how she develops stories and writes for her books." In Long Interview No. 73, "Torrence talks about how certain tales have been sanitized, like in Disney, and of the evolution of some tales that originally had more truth in them. She talks of the importance of cautionary tales. She also tells who her influences and mentors are, and tells what distinguishes her as a storyteller." In Long Interview No. 74, "Torrence goes over the objects collected from her travels, as well as the figurines of old black stereotypes, like Aunt Jemima. She collects these things because 'My heritage is slavery. Because of these maids and butlers I could get my Ph.D.'" (Worldcat).

Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness. Annual, 1993- . Fairmont, WV: Fairmont State College.

Traditions and Treasures: Kentucky Folklife. "This site is the outgrowth of a folklife project started between a 5th-grade class of Meadowthorpe Elementary School (Lexington, KY) and a U.S. History class of Garrard County High School." Funded with a grant from the Kentucky Historical Society. Student projects include collecting oral histories and jump rope jingles and hand claps. Includes annotated bibliography of resources.

Tullus, Allen. "Disremembering and Remembering: Embodied Experience and Oral History: Comments accompanying the Showing of the Film Documentary Being a Joines." Revue Francaise d'Etudes Americaines, vol. 15:44, Apr. 1990, pp. 77-85. On a film by Tom Davenport.

Turner, William H. and Edward Cabbell, eds. Blacks in Appalachia. Lexington, U of KY Press, 1985. Contains background on "John Henry."


Vess, Charles. SW VA artist of myth and folklore themes. See The Jack Tales Wall, above.

Vest, Jay Hansford C. "From Bobtail to Brer Rabbit: Native American Influences on Uncle Remus." The American Indian Quarterly, vol. 24, Winter 2000, pp. 19ff. Available online through library services such as Academic Index ASAP. A descendant of the Saponi-Monacan confederacy of the Piedmont and mountains of VA, WV, and NC analyzes oral traditions showing a strong influence of Native American tales on Joel Chandler Harris tales.

Virginia Folklore Society. Publishes Folklore and Folklife in Virginia.

Virginia's Indians, Past and Present. Internet School Library Media Center, with links to many resources for each tribe from Virginia's history.

Vitale, Ann E. Regional Folklore. Introduction by Alan Jabbour. Mason Crest Publishers, 2002. A book for young readers about folklore of Appalachia and other regions. 


Wagaman, Gena. D. "The Tale of Red Emmy: An Irish Witch in Appalachia." 19 pp. Available online in ERIC. Paper presented at the Appalachian Studies Conference. Morganton, WV, March 1989. Essay about the Irish and American roots of a tale within Lee Smith's 1983 novel Oral History. Includes a questionnaire with answers by Smith.

Ward, W. H. "The Literary Unity of Ray Hicks's Jack Tales." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, Sept. 1978, pp. 127-33, in special issue on Jack Tales. Observes that oral tales need even more unity than other short stories; they may hide unifying devices less but they can also be subtle. Like other märchen, the tales begin with a formula about Jack and his mother enduring hard times, and end with assurance of happy prosperity. Repetition unifies, and the design of "Jack and the Three Steers" is like a frame story. Hicks does what Halpert notes in Chase's book, has Jack succeed by luck or his wits, but not both at once. Jack uses his wits in "Three Steers" and succeeds through luck in "Big Man Jack, Killed Seven at a Whack." These two tales remain true to their types, consistent in "the careful distinction between the bright, active hero and the lucky, passive one" (p. 131). Flaws appear in Hicks's tales, including Old World elements in New World tales, but kings are "mountainized," a princess seems more ordinary when called king's daughter. "Soldier Jack" detracts from unity of impression in the tales because of rare occurrence of disease and Jack's death, but death is prepared for in development from humorous to perilous episodes in the tale. The spoken language also brings unity, "for the most crucial union of all is that between the tale and the telling" (p. 133).

Warner, Ann, and Fank Warner. "Frank Noah Proffitt: Good Times and Hard Times on the Beaver Dam Road." Appalachian Journal, vol. 1, 1973, pp. 163-98.

Warren, Stephen. "The Vitality of Folklore: An Interview with Judy P. Byers about the Importance of Folklore and about Carrying on the Work of Folklorist Ruth Ann Musick." Now and Then, vol. 10:3, 1993 Fall, pp. 27-30.

Washington, Mary Louise. The Folklore of the Cumberlands As Reflected in the Writings of Jesse Stuart. Thesis. University of Pennsylvania, 1979.

Wellman, Manly Wade. "Legend of Terror from Madison County." North Carolina Folklore, vol. 20, 1972, pp. 67-72.

West, John Foster. Lift Up Your Head, Tom Dooley: The True Story of the Appalachian Murder That Inspired One of America's Most Popular Ballads. Asheboro, NC: Down Home Press, 1993. Reviewed by W.K. McNeil in Appalachian Journal, vol. 21, Spring 1994.

West Virginia's Appalachian Music and Literature: Sounds, Sights, and Stories of West Virginians. By Avis Caynor and Reneé Wyatt, 1997. Has copies with audio of tales and songs, activities and materials for students and teachers on topics such as Ghosts, Humor, Folk Heroes, Folk Music. (These pages formerly in WV World School web site, now reprinted in AppLit.)

Western, Linda E. "A Comparative Study of Literature through Folk Tale Variants." Language Arts, vol. 57, Apr. 1980, pp. 395-402, 439. ERIC Clearinghouse: CS715742. ERIC Abstract: "Tells benefits of approaching the study of literature through a study of folk tale variants; suggests a plan for helping children analyze and compare folk tale variants. Includes a model of a discussion based on three versions of 'Jack and the Beanstalk.'"

Whisnant, David E. All That Is Native & Fine: The Politics of Culture in an American Region. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina Press, 1983. xv, 340 pp. See Richard Chase Bibliography for details.

Whisnant, David E. "The White Top Folk Festival: What We Have (Have Not) Learned." Paper presented to Virginia Highlands Festival, Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center, Abingdon, VA, 6 Aug. 1998. H-Appalachia Web Site. Accessed online 6/1/03. Discusses the problem that festivals tend to define culture and encourage efforts to suit the tastes of organizers and supporters rather than celebrating real folk culture or promoting community awareness and unity. Describes White Top Festival "petering out" at end of 1930s when Annabel Buchanan withdrew and left it to John Powell, John Blakemore, and "the unabashedly entrepreneurial Jack Tale collector Richard Chase. Local performers were crowded increasingly into the background, in favor of Chase's ersatz cultural concoctions: puppet shows, Morris dances, and Punch and Judy shows." By World War II, "the festival was dead" (p. 6). Refutes stereotypes of white Anglo-Saxon mountaineers, asserting that the region was always similar to others in America and continues to change with greater mobility and blending of ethnic groups. Discusses two contemporary festivals that did succeed in representing cultural realities and local social problems. The Festival for the New River (July 1975) focused on opposition to the Appalachian Power Company's plan to build dames that would flood parts of Ashe County, NC. The Jubilee Festival in Ivanhoe, VA (1987 ff.) responded to loss of industrial jobs and efforts toward revitalization in a racially integrated town.

Whitener, Rogers. "Selections from 'Folk-Ways and Folk-Speech.'" North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 29, Spring-Summer 1981, pp. 1-86. Special issue. Foreword by Thomas McGowan on authentic folklore in Whitener's newspaper columns reprinted here. Tales retold and discussed include "The Farmer and the Chicken-Hawk," "The Tale of Sugar Mountain" (said to be named for a sugar mine), "The Ghost Bull of Roan Mountain," "Just a Little Cold" (another ghost bull), "A Coon-Dog Tale" (about eating the dog when coon were scarce), "A Bobcat Tale." Also columns on witches and snakes, Bloodybones, marbles games, "The Mountaineer and the Media," Appalachian place names, mountain speech, chicken lore, "Visions of the Veil-Born" (people born with a caul able to see the dead), "Weather Tales at Boone Drug," "Academic Lore and 'Ferry Dittles.'" "Mountain Superstitions," Baby Marking superstitions (getting birthmarks in utero through the mother's hunger or fright), "Mountain Wedding Customs," other ghost stories discussed and recounted. In "A Ride with Marshall Ward" (Oct. 24, 1979), Ward tells about his 65 years of telling Jack tales, saying they probably came from Germany or Holland through England and are related to the Grimm Brothers stories. He lists 25 Jack tales he tells regularly, varying them with the audience and seasons. He gives Richard Chase credit for preserving the tales and encouraging him to continue telling them. See AppLit's Chase bibliography for quotation. "John Joines of Wilkes County" (Apr. 1, 1981) discusses the increasing popularity of amateur oral storytellers, their public performances and recordings. Joines tells mainly dog stories, tall tales (calling them outright lies), and unclassified anecdotes.

Widdowson, J. D. A. "Folktales in Newfoundland Oral Tradition: Structure, Style, and Performance." Folklore, vol. 120.1, 2009, pp. 19-35. Includes discussion of Richard Chase's books and Cecil Sharp song collections, in relation to showing that English folklore crossed the Atlantic. Herbert Halpert worked with Chase before moving to Newfoundland in 1962 and realizing that English folklore traditions survived there as well as in the U.S. This study shows that a richer tradition of märchen existed in England and Ireland than previously thought, before being transferred to North America.

Wilburn, Herb. Characteristics of Good Appalachian Literature. Appalachian Literature. James Madison Univ. An online essay with general guidelines and a some comments on selecting traditional literature for children, with links to a bibliography and other Appalachian Resources.

Williams, Cratis D. "Mountain Customs, Social Life, and Folk Yarns in Taliaferro's Fisher's River Scenes and Characters." North Carolina Folklore Journal, vol. 16, 1968.

Williams, Cratis D. Tales From the Sacred Wind: Coming of Age in Appalachia. Eds. David Cratis Williams and Patricia D. Beaver. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2003. Williams' writings about his family, early life, and education, including a version of "Mutts Mag" from his grandmothers, other examples of his writings on various types of Appalachian folkways, and "Why a Mountain Boy Should Be Proud"—an article he wrote in high school.

Williamson, Jerry W., ed. An Appalachian Symposium: Essays Written in Honor of Cratis D. Williams. Boone: Appalachian State Univ. Press, 1977. Includes an essay by Chester Raymond Young on celebration of Old Crhistmas.

Windling, Terri. "Turtle Island: The Mythology of Native North America." 1997. The Endicott Studio web site. Windling responds to an English friend's question about America having no ancient mythology. Includes discussion of Cherokee lore in modern literature; early collections of Anglo-American folklore in Appalachia by Cecil Sharp, Isobel Gordon Carter and others; fiction by Orson Scott Card, Manly Wade Wellman and Sharyn McCrumb based on lore of the eastern mountains. With references to books and recordings based on Native American and Appalachian culture.

Winick, Stephen D. "Do You Know Jack? An Exploration of Jack Tales." Realms of Fantasy, Feb. 2010, pp. 20-27. (Available for purchase as pdf as of July 2013). Published in Winick's blog as "Do You Know Jack? An Exploration of Jack Tales." No date (accessed 7/28/13). Article by a folklorist at the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress, with photos and book illustrations, includes discussion of Richard Chase, Ray and Orville Hicks, history and interpretations of Jack tales around the world, "Bill Willingham’s multiple-Eisner-award-winning comic book series" with the hero Jack, and the influence of folktale Jack on Tolkien and other fantasy writers. Winick quotes Dr. Joseph Doddridge's 1912 writings on the presence of Jack tales in western Virginia before 1783. Includes bibliography/filmography/discography. Some of the same material (not about Appalachian tales) appears in Winick's blog entry "Jack the Giant Slayer: Some Folklore Background," written at the time of the release of Bryan Singer's feature film Jack the Giant Slayer, in The Huffington Post 6 Mar. 2013.

Witthoft, John. "Bird Lore of the Eastern Cherokee." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 36.11, 1946. "This study was made possible by a grant-in-aid, for field work among the Eastern Cherokee from the Department of Anthropology Research Funds of 1944-46 of the University of Pennsylvania." "Notes on a Cherokee Migration Story." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 37.9, 1947.  "Some Eastern Cherokee Bird Stories." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 36.6, 1946, pp. 177-180. "Stone Pipes of the Historic Cherokees." Southern Indian Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, Oct. 1949. Witthoft, John, and Wendell S. Hadlock. "Cherokee-Iroquois Little People." Journal of American Folklore, Oct.-Dec., 1946. WorldCat also lists these and other titles as a group in a volume labeled Articles Reprinted from Various Periodicals, 1946-49.

Wolfenstein, Martha. "Jack and the Beanstalk: An American Version." In Childhood in Contemporary Cultures. Eds. Margaret Mead and Martha Wolfenstein. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955. pp. 243-45. Examines the way in which the tale has been transformed in the American version "Jack and the Bean Tree," as told in the mountains of North Carolina and recorded by Richard Chase. (note by Linnea Hendrickson)

Women in Tennessee History: A Bibliography: Oral History. Middle Tenn. State Univ.


Yates, Mike, Elaine Bradtke, and Malcolm Taylor, eds. Dear Companion: Appalachian Traditional Songs and Singers from the Cecil Sharp Collection. Preface by Shirley Collins. London: English Folk Dance & Song Society in association with Sharp's Folk Club, 2004. Includes 53 songs and ballads, photos, biographies and other primary documents, map of counties where Sharp collected folk music, bibliography of Appalachian music, and background on Sharp's travels from England to NC, TN, VA, WV, and KY.

Yurchenco, Henrietta. "Trouble in the Mines: A History in Song and Story by Women of Appalachia." American Music, vol. 9:2, Summer 1991, pp. 209-24.

Zipes, Jack, ed. The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 2000. Contains entries on Richard Chase, Jack Tales, and many other topics on folk and fairy tales.

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Journals on Folklore and Storytelling

Note: Some individual articles and special issues are listed above, and many other children's literature journals contain material on folklore adaptations, but the regional folklore journals listed here contain innumerable other Appalachian folktale texts and articles. See also Journals and Magazines on AppLit's Links page for other Appalachian periodicals that may publish folktale texts and related articles. This list is new in August 2002. Please send Tina Hanlon any corrections or additions.

See also the electronic journals and papers listed at American Folklife Resources, the Internet Public Library's guide for students and teachers.

American Anthropologist

Appalachian Journal (Appalachian State University) includes articles on folklore as well as other areas of Appalachian Studies.

Children's Folklore Review (Children's Folklore Section, American Folklore Society)

Fabula: Journal of Folktale Studies - an international journal

Folklore and Folklife in Virginia: Journal of the Virginia Folklore Society

The Foxfire Magazine. Mountain City, Georgia.1966- 

Hillchild: A Folklore Chapbook about, for, and by West Virginia Children. First annual volume published 2002. See descriptions in section above on General Resources and in AppLit's Review of Hillchild.

Journal of American Folklore (American Folklore Society)

Journal of Cherokee Studies

Journal of Folklore Research (formerly Journal of the Folklore Institute)

Journal of Mythic Arts. "An online journal for the exploration of myth, folklore, and fairy tales, and their use in contemporary arts." The Endicott Studio, 1997-

The Kentucky Explorer Magazine - a history and genealogy magazine that includes old tales and folklore

Kentucky Folklore Record. Bowling Green: Kentucky Folklore Society. Vol. 1, 1955-vol. 32, 1986.

Marvels and Tales: Journal of Fairy-tale Studies

Mississippi Folklore Record

The Mountain Laurel. "An online journey into 'the Heart of the Blue Ridge Mountains.'" Since 1983, a site containing "history, genealogy from people searching for Blue Ridge Roots, recipes, crafts, interviews, some mighty tall tales, Mountain Backroad Tours to out of the way places, and much more" (Susan Thigpen, editor).

The Mountain Times. Boone, NC. See description of Local Lore section above under General Resources above.

National Storytelling Journal. Began Jan. 1984.

North Carolina Folklore

North Carolina Folklore Journal

Southern Folklore. Discontinued in 2001.

Southern Folklore Quarterly

Storytelling Magazine (National Storytelling Network)

Storytelling World. Began Winter/Spring 1992, merged with Storytelling Magazine, an outgrowth of National Storytelling Journal—see history at this link

Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin

Tennessee Storytelling Journal. Dec. 1989-Dec. 1991 - became Storytelling World

Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness, 1993-. West Virginia Folklife Center, Fairmont State College. Each issue has sections on Educational Application: Folklore in the Classroom and Folklore Content.

Complete List of AppLit Pages on Folklore
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This page's last update: 11/25/17
Links checked 6/6/02
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