English 336: Introduction to Linguistics
Study Guide For Linguistics Test I
Dr. Tina L. Hanlon
Linguistics Home Page
Use the summaries (especially the words in boldface) in F & R, chapters
1, 3, 4 for review, and the glossary. Also review the same material that was
on the Morphology quiz. Reviewing Daniels' "Nine Ideas about Language"
and the assigned chapters from Weaver, Grammar for Teachers, would be helpful.
1. Introduction: Understand concepts:
Different meanings of grammar and grammaticality; prescriptive vs. descriptive approaches; linguistic competence vs. performance; Universal Grammar or language universals; arbitrary relations between signs and meanings; creative aspect of language
Basic meanings of terms: language, dialect, standard and nonstandard English, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, lexicon
Dimensions of language
variation: pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar (linguistic variables)
time, geography, ethnic/social group, style (social variables)
Understand terms: morpheme; bound and free morphemes; roots and affixesprefix, suffix; lexical vs. grammatical or functional morphemes/function words; productivity of morphemes; inflectional vs. derivational affixes; part of speech/word class; open vs. closed classes of words & morphemes
Ways of Forming Words: borrowing, combining morphemes, compounding, acronyms, blends, abbreviation or clipping, new words from proper names and brand names, functional shift, imitation, coinage
Be able to do exercises identifying types of words and morphemes as on morphology quiz.
Understand terms: grammaticality, phrasal categories, syntactic categories, lexical categories vs. functional categories of words (same as open vs. closed classes, or content vs. function words in morphology), subcategorization (or C-selection), structural vs. lexical/semantic ambiguity, paraphrases of synonymous sentences, phrase-structure rules and trees, surface vs. deep structure, transformations (or transformational rules), head word in phrases and complements, recursiveness (categories can be repeated in a phrase or sentence, or recur at different levels of tree diagrams), main and embedded S
structural, and generative-transformational grammarbasic aims and differences,
background on dictionaries and grammar study (See class notes and the chapters
from C. Weaver, Grammar for Teachers.)
Identify Major Syntactic Categories and Word Classes:
Types of sentences:
Be able to diagram
sentences (as in exercise 7) if given P-S rules like those on p. 147.
Identify transformation of a basic sentence into passive, imperative, yes-no quest. or wh-word question, and adverb movement as a transformation.
Know meanings of symbols used in P-S rules such as parentheses, arrow >.
Samples of Possible Test Questions on Syntax with Answers:
A. Indicate whether each of the following sentences is active (A) or passive (P).
1. _____A_______ Joshua carved the delicate chess pieces for his woodcraft project.
2. _____A_______ The tourists had left litter of all kinds in the park at the end of the day.
3. _____P_______ Thousands of people have been left homeless by urban development.
4. _____P ______ Dogs and cats should not be used by scientists to test chemicals.
5. _____A ______ People with respiratory ailments should not shovel snow.
B. Sentence Types: Indicate whether each sentence is (a) declarative, interrogative, or imperative; (b) simple, compound, complex; (c) the underlined verb is transitive, intransitive, or linking.
|1.||(a) Dec.||(b) Simple||(c) trans||He had discarded the old document, apparently intentionally.|
|2.||(a) Imp.||(b) Complex||(c) trans||Understand that you must be home by midnight.|
|3.||(a) Inter.||(b) Simple||(c) intrans||Could the children have been lying about the broken glass?|
|4.||(a) Dec||(b) Complex||(c) link||Lovers are so foolish when they believe love will last forever.|
|5.||(a) Inter||(b) Compound||(c) link||Where have you been and why are you late?|
|6.||(a) Dec.||(b) Complex||(c) trans.||The wizard with the tall hat believed that Harry would conquer the forces of evil.|
|7.||(a) Dec.||(b) Compound||(c) intrans||The immature witches joked about Hagrid's huge size and he defended his strange pets.|
C. Syntactic Categories. Above each of the underlined phrases, indicate whether it is a noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective (Adj), auxiliary, adverb, or prepositional phrase. Then circle the head word in each phrase (does not apply to auxiliaries or adverb). Give one label and circle one head word only for each word group underlined (e.g., even if a VP contains an NP or a PP within it, give only one label and circle one head word for the whole VP underlined).
NP (circle document) ADV
1. He had discarded the forgotten document, apparently intentionally.
AUX PP (circle about)
2. The children could have been lying to us about the broken glass.
NP (circle people) PP (circle to)
3. All the people who lived in that house moved to Minnesota.
Adj VP (circle crying)
4. The little boy on the ground was crying pitifully.
5. My uncle is this elderly man with the beard.
PP (circle by) VP (circle studying)
6. School will have started by next week , and we will be studying linguistics.
7. Has the energetic child full of energy been looking in our direction?
(circle student) NP
8. Did the student give her friend a piece of cake?
Notes on additional examples in the sentences above:
D. Identify the type of transformation represented by the following pairs of sentences.
EXTRA CREDIT if this one is on the test:
5. The child gave the ball
to Joe. The child gave Joe
the ball. (See exercise 17, chap. 4)
Transforms a sentence with PP after V into a sentence with an indirect object:
(Tip: Many sentences with PP "to X" or "for X" [referring to recipients of the direct object] can be transformed so that the object of the prep. becomes an indirect object, occurring between the verb and direct object. This is an example of stylistic, optional variation like transforming an active sentence into a passive one.)
Additional Note relating to general concepts on chap. 4: Pairs of sentences in 1 and 5 illustrate synonymous sentences: they have different surface structures but mean the same things. Sentences in 2 and 3 also illustrate deep structure meaning relationships in related sentences, but these pairs of sentences aren't synonymous. Transforming a declarative sentence into a question, or interrogative, involves a substantial change in meaning (sometimes abbreviated Q as the added element in deep structure, if you were diagramming these sentences and using P-S rules that would trigger the obligatory transformation.)
April 6, 2010 4:34 PM